Smoking During Pregnancy

The Dangers of Smoking During Pregnancy

When a baby is conceived, it is most often a joyous occasion for the parents. A lot of changes are obviously in store for them, as well as some apprehension about what the future holds. They will have approximately nine months to plan for the birth of their child. Undoubtedly, they will begin making arrangements for day care, because they understand that, upon birth, the child will be totally dependent on them for all of his or her needs. What they may not realize is that complete dependence begins long before birth.

During the first couple of weeks after conception, the embryo travels from the mother’s fallopian tubes to the womb, where it will attach itself to the uterine wall. During this voyage, the embryo will spend its time splitting cells and multiplying rapidly. While the embryo is extremely busy during the first 17 days, this is not an extremely critical time of development when major organ systems are formed. If anything unhealthy is introduced into the mother’s body during this time, the affect on the embryo will either be no affect at all or they may completely destroy the embryo, causing a miscarriage. If this happens, it is likely that the woman will have no knowledge that she was ever pregnant (Hawkesley 8).

It is an entirely different situation during the next stage of fetal development. Many organ systems are developed during the second stage, which happens from the third to the tenth week of pregnancy. Any abnormality that forms during this time will be present from that time forward (Hawkesley 9). Because this stage is a significant period in which organs are being formed, it’s unmistakably essential that the mother take tremendous care in what she ingests, injects and inhales into her body. Any unhealthy substance that enters her body may have a tremendous impact on the health of her unborn child.

The third stage of fetal development lasts from day 56 until the baby is born (Hawkesley 10). During this time, organs developed in the second stage are simply becoming larger and more robust. While it’s unlikely harmful substances will affect the development of organs, they may retard the growth of them. It should be noted that the brain continues developing throughout the entire pregnancy, meaning that any harmful toxins used by the mother may, in fact, cause the baby to be born with brain damage (Hawkesley 10).

The fetus is attached to the mother by the placenta, which carries all of the oxygen and nutrition it will need until it is born. It is imperative for the mother to eat well-balanced meals because she is not only providing nutrition to her body, but to her baby’s body as well. Anything she eats, sniffs, injects or inhales will be passed onto the fetus and may impair the development or growth of it.

Due to the fact that cigarettes contain 580 carcinogenes in addition to nicotine, smoking is not only harmful to the mother, but it is also extremely harmful to her unborn child.

Cigarette smoking can cause a greater chance of miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, and placental abruption. These babies also have higher perinatal death rates [stillbirth or death soon after delivery]. It is believed that the carbon monoxide in cigarettes negatively effect the fetuses red blood cells and cause small blood vessels to constrict, consequently reducing the oxygen transferred to the fetus (Thurston 381).

Nine months later and the baby is born, apparently healthy. The mother’s smoking didn’t seem to cause any harm to the child; or did it? There are many other risks associated with smoking during pregnancy. One of them is SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome). While babies appear seemingly healthy, the CDC reports that babies born to mothers who smoked during their pregnancy, have an increased chance of dying from SIDS before their first birthday. The risk is 1.4 to 3.0 times than those babies born to women who did not smoke during their pregnancy (CDC website citation). While it’s also very important that the mother not smoke during her pregnancy, she also needs to be cognizant of her surroundings. If she is around anyone else who is smoking, the secondhand smoke she breathes in is just as harmful to her growing fetus as though she were smoking the cigarette herself. The same is true of infants who are exposed to secondhand smoke. Additionally, infants exposed to smoke both in the womb and secondhand smoke after birth have an even greater risk of SIDS. Simply states, the CDC says that “parents can help protect their babies from SIDS by taking the following three actions: not smoking when pregnant, not smoking in the home or around the baby after the baby is born and putting the baby down to sleep on its back [another risk factor for SIDS]” (CDC website citation). Other complications that can arise are asthma, learning disabilities and behavioral problems.

Works Cited (Aug 14, 2007) (October 2006) (Oct 2,2007) Tobacco Use and Pregnancy: Home

Tim Berners Lee: The Inventor Of The Internet

Many people have had a significant impact on the world of mass media that radically changed how the world communicates information. One example of someone who has done just that would be Tim Berners-Lee, who is best known for his innovation: The World Wide Web. Tim Berners-Lee has impacted the world of mass media in several ways. First, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. Second, since the World Wide Web was invented, it has radically changed the way that the people communicate. Third, the internet has revolutionized how the press gets information to the people. Finally, while the Internet has its advantages, it has had alot more than its share of controversy.

First, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. The story behind the invention of the internet is an interesting one. It all began around 1980 while Tim Berners-Lee was working as a software engineer at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland; also known as CERN. He wanted to figure out a new way to organize his notes “in a brain-like way”, but while improving upon the abilities of “that occasionally memory-constrained organ” and came up with a new way of doing it – building a software program called “Enquire” (TIME). Using the ideas that he used to build Enquire and other ideas that were current at the time, he created another way of finding files on his computer: by creating a type of “hypertext” notebook that allows the text in a document to be linked to other files on the computer. He then thought about accessing materials on other computers. He then thought about opening his computer to not only his coworkers at CERN, but to the scientific community everywhere. By using this type of networking scheme by connecting individual computers together on a network, it would mean no centralized system. This would mean that the new network would have no trouble with scalability, which means that it could grow to infinity. Tim Berners-Lee then built a coding system that was easy to learn and use to build web pages. It is called HyperText Mark-up Language, also well known as “HTML”. It has become the most wildly used language that web developers or even normal people use to create web pages and sites. He then created e new set of protocols that allowed these HTML documents to be connected across the Internet called HyperText Transfer Protocol, also well known as HTTP. Soon after that, Tim Berners-Lee wrote the code for the first web browser, which allowed users around the world to access web pages on the internet. Once the World Wide Web debuted in 1991, the world of mass media changed forever as it brought “order and clarity to the chaos that was cyberspace”. The World Wide Web (the “information-sharing model” built for the internet that is the way accessing and sharing information on the internet) and Internet (the massive network of computers) experienced growth at exponential rates (The Difference). At one point, the number of internet users was doubling every 53 days (TIME). Clearly, Tim Berners-Lee’s inventions made a huge impact on the mass media industry.

Second, since the World Wide Web was invented, it has radically changed the way that the people communicate. Since the Internet was first brought online, many social networking sites have radically changed how people, businesses and organizations communicate. One of those websites is Facebook. With Facebook, anyone could create a profile on the site and not only post their thoughts on their “wall” for friends to see and comment on, but also use instant messaging to talk to friends in real-time and even share photos and videos between friends or even everyone on Facebook. Facebook has evolved the way that people communicate in several ways. One example is how easy it is for anyone to click the “Add Friend” and reconnect with old friends. Another example is how the sheer number of people using Facebook affects the mass media, numbering in the hundreds of millions, possibly soon to be in the billions. Because of how many people use Facebook, the chances are good that anyone wanting to find old friends would find them on Facebook. Businesses who want to advertize would use Facebook because their ads would reach a very large amount of people. Organizations who create community pages or groups for a specific cause could also “speak” to a very large amount of people. Another great example is how Facebook is real time and very easy to update. Since Facebook is real time, people could keep their profiles current from anywhere with just seconds of work at a time, even from mobile devices such as cell phones. This also allows people to share events as they happen within seconds (Welcome)(NEWS). Clearly, Tim Berners-Lee’s invention allowed the social networking sites to form and they evolved the way that people communicate. The global nature of the Internet and the World Wide Web only helps to let sites like this expand on a huge scale.

Third, the internet has revolutionized how the press gets information to the people. For hundreds of years, the newspaper has been the best known and well used source of information on current events. However, in recent years, it’s popularity has declined. Nowadays, 61% of citizens in the western world get their news from the Internet, compared to 17% who get their news from the newspaper. This could be for several reasons. One reason would be that people could access up-to-minute news on the internet at any time from any location if they want to because of the nature of the internet and the evolution of mobile devices that have the capability to access it. There is no need to go to a newsstand or store to buy a newspaper to read news that might be out of date. Another reason is that publishing a story on the internet is also much easier and less expensive than publishing it on printed media. Internet news could also have photos and video supporting the text on a new agency’s website. Another reason would also be that the news is available to many more people due to the worldwide nature of the internet (What are)(Newspapers). Another mainstream format that the internet is quickly replacing would be television. Internet television and streaming video are supplying news in about the same format as television with full motion video. Internet video is also easier to set up and less expensive to put a video online or watch it (Internet). Clearly, Tim Berners-Lee’s inventions revolutionized how the press gets information to the people.

Finally, while the Internet has its advantages, it has had alot more than its share of controversy. Since Tim Berners-Lee invented the internet, it has caused many controversies in the world. One key example of a significant issue in many countries that the internet has provided is the use of censorship to filter “obscene” materials and the worldwide nature of the network. Some countries, such as China have responded with a strict internet censorship scheme that regulates what types of content the people may read or write. In fact, the censorship scheme has been given the nickname “The Great Firewall of China” in popular culture because it blocks thousands of websites that the Chinese government feels are a threat to the country and society. It also affects the ability of the press to report current events freely and without restriction. This was especially a huge issue during the Beijing Olympics, where there were many foreign journalists on site. Another key issue that the internet has caused is the issue of privacy. One major breach of privacy that involves the internet would be Google Street View. Google Street View is part of Google Maps and it allows anyone to view an area as if they were standing on a street. Google uses specially modified vehicles with cameras that take pictures in every direction as the car drives along. These pictures are then uploaded to Google Maps and allow users to use them in addition to maps to look at an area. This has caused major privacy problems because there are several occasions when the vehicle takes photos of people on private property that do not wish to be photographed for various reasons. While Google does offer users the option of reporting individual images to request their removal from the web, that that would be after the fact and the image could have be saved by anyone prior to removal (15 Biggest). Clearly, Tim Berners-Lee has made a significant impact on the world of mass media because while his inventions created many advantages to how media is delivered to the people, it also creates massive controversies in the process.

Tim Berners-Lee has had a significant impact on the world of mass media that radically changed how the world communicates information. His innovations that caused these changes are the World Wide Web and the Internet. Tim Berners-Lee has impacted the world of mass media in several ways. First, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. Second, since the World Wide Web was invented, it has radically changed the way that the people communicate. Third, the internet has revolutionized how the press gets information to the people. Finally, while the World Wide Web and the Internet has its advantages, it has had alot more than its share of controversy. Clearly, Tim Berners-Lee has impacted the world of mass media in many ways, positive and negative.

Product Design of a Fan Blade



To effectively develop a Product Design Specification for the Fan Blade, we need to firstly define the basic functions of the Fan blade. The basic function of a fan is to cause effective air flow in a room and this should be accomplished for a long usage of several years at varying rotations per minute.

The quality of fans is rated by their performance in moving the air effectively and quietly. This is monitored by such factors as the pitch, length, and number of ceiling fan blades, and their revolutions per minute (rpms).The angular edges of the ceiling fan blades are termed as the pitches which are particularly important for the effective movement of the air. The shape enables the blade to apply pressure to the air in front of it and thus the air is forced downwards.

Thus the important specifications required for our component would be:

  • Effective Air Flow
  • Low Noise levels
  • No Wobbling
  • Durability
  • Light weight for low power consumption
  • Should not get rusted.
  • Aesthetics
  • Low cost

The higher the pitch the more is the replacement of air. Good quality ceiling fan blades have a pitch of 12-14 degrees. Blade pitches as low as 8 or 10 degrees leads to poorer performance and thus lower Air flow and higher noise levels. While the short ceiling fan blades with minimum pitches can swirl at high speeds, they do not make for much air circulation and they are noisier than the types of fans with longer blades and higher pitch though they rotate more slowly.

One of the issues people sometimes find with their ceiling fans is wobbling. While many people may think that the wobbling is caused by the motor, this is usually not the case. The wobbling of the fan is usually caused by blades that are out of weight alignment. This is due to the use of warped, bent, or unmatched blades. Another reason for wobbling is that the blades may not have been screwed into the brackets straight.

Aesthetics are very important in the design of a ceiling fan as the color and design need to live up to the looks of the place of installment. Different materials like solid wood, cross-laminated veneer and less-expensive veneered constant-density boards are used to render the ceiling fan blades a smart and contemporary look. This also may include a metal finish, or a wooden looks. Contrast or reversible ceiling fan blades are another innovative addition to the whole range of ceiling fan blade designing.

Ceiling fans usually are not replaced for many a years at a stretch. Thus they are expected to be durable to withstand long usage at varying speeds. Though some designs of fan blades may consume low power at the cost of low air flow, a better design would include the use of a low weight material for the fan blade. Rusting of metallic fan blades can cause unevenness in the balancing of the fan blades because of change in weight and it also will affect the durability. Thus the blades need to be coated effectively with paint to prevent oxidation of the fan blades.


The most widely used materials for making ceiling fan blades are Wood, Plastic and Metal. We have decided on using an aluminum blade for our fan, but let us also consider the other materials too.

Wood had been traditionally used as it is a light weight material that is easily available. It also can be carved elegantly to add beauty to the aesthetics of a home. It is known that the conventional blade of a ceiling fan is made of plywood or solid wood. In the manufacturing procedure, such a blade needs to go through many processing steps such as cutting, planing, multi polishing, finishing, painting and printing or covering with printed paper, etc. Moreover, each blade must finally be weighed and three or four blades of the same weight must be selected as a set for the packing operation. Therefore, the whole processing procedure for a wooden blade is quite labor-intensive and time-consuming, and therefore very expensive. The wooden blades are made of longitudinal strips of wood that have their sides laminated together. Due to the thermal cycling and operational stress, the laminated wooden blades may crack along the length of the blade. Under such impact the blade could separate into one or more pieces and send harmful missiles about a room.

The plastic blade comprises a blade frame made by injection molding or die casting a commercially available tensionable plastic or fabric. This method of making fan blades greatly reduces manufacturing time and expense. The assembled blade also has a controllable weight error falling within a tolerable range so that the weighing and selecting procedures performed before packing can be greatly simplified. The blade frame is mass produced by plastic injection molding. The blade plate can be pre-printed with various colors and designs, and then mass cut by a cutter, whereby the production speed is greatly increased. Moreover, the blade frame and blade plate can be assembled by means of a specific assembling machine in a factory or assembled outside a factory by contract so that production can be greatly increased with less labor. Thus the manufacturing cost is greatly reduced. The blade has a total weight which is 40-50% that of a conventional wooden blade. Therefore, the power of the blade-driving motor can be reduced according to the reduced weight. Therefore, the cost of the motor as well as of the blade is lowered.

Blades for conventional ceiling fans have been manufactured from numerous materials in a variety of shapes and sizes. Generally, the environment in which the ceiling fan is intended to operate is a significant factor in accompanying drawings, the selection of the material for the blade composition. Rigid materials such as wood or plastic are commonly used on fans intended solely for indoor use, but are prone to warping when subjected to long-term outdoor use due to the extreme fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Thus aluminum blades which are made from aluminum casting seem ideal for outdoor usage.


The wooden blades are made from a number of materials and are given a wide variety of finishes. The natural wood and painted blades are made from solid wood, cross-laminated veneer (plywood), and less-expensive veneered constant-density board.

The finishes include natural, appliance white, cherry wood, oak, walnut, burled camphor, bleached oak, white, faux granite, rosewood, black, high luster, colors, and many more.

Many processing steps are involved such as cutting, planing, multi polishing, finishing, painting and printing or covering with printed paper, etc. Thus the making of a wooden blade seems more laborious and time consuming. From our Product design specification, the wooden blades satisfy the conditions of being light weight, rust proof and having high aesthetic value. But it is not durable as wood might absorb moisture, and this may cause unevenness in the balancing of the blades.

Using a plastic blade is considered safer then using a metal or wooden one, this way you don’t need a shroud over the blade. Unlike wooden blades, a plastic blade is made by Injection molding process and its production is not laborious and time consuming. The whole plastic blade can be made of one piece, unlike a wooden blade which is mostly an assembly of wooden pieces glued together.

Due to the lower material and manufacturing costs and the ease with which they can be mass produced, one-piece molded plastic fans of both the impeller and centrifugal or blower types are being used as air circulating means in numerous appliances such as hair dryers, automobile heaters, refrigerators. Even though such fans are relatively small and light, it is nevertheless desirable that they be dynamically balanced to within accurate limits.

The method used for obtaining dynamic balance has involved the molding of a test fan in each mold cavity, testing these molded fans for dynamic balance and thereafter machining away material from selected areas of the mold surfaces thereby to increase the weight of the portions of the fan formed by these areas to obtain a balanced weight distribution.

The plastic blade is quite useful as it satisfies most of the Product design specifications. But it cannot be said to be durable as the plastic may warp due to higher temperatures thus affecting the balance of the blades.

Thus we see that a metal blade made from aluminum is ideal as it is durable and can be placed outdoors to without being rusted.


The design proporsal is as follows. The Aluminum blades are supported on a strong plastic plate at the bottom. They are fixed together by two tightly fixed screws one behind the other. The plastic plate is in turn connected to the hub of the fan by two screws. The weight of the Aluminum blade is supported on the plastic plate. They are a total of four blades fixed symmetrically to the hub.


Our design of the Ceiling fan with four aluminum plates would have the following mechanical principles acting on it.

  • Force acting downwards due to weight of aluminum blade.
  • Radial force when the fan is in rotating.
  • Normal force of the plastic plate acting upwards
  • Normal force of pushing air down acting up wards.
  • Tangential normal force from the bolts to the Aluminum blade, which causes rotation
  • Torque acting on the bolts due to the weight of the Aluminum blades.


For an aluminum plate of dimensions 14cm Ã- 2.5cm the area of the plate is approximately 35cm. The thickness of the plate is around 0.1 cm.

Therefore the volume of the Aluminum blade would be 3.5cm^3.

The density of Aluminum is 2.7 gm/cc.

Therefore the weight of each Aluminum blade is 9.45gm

The RPM at which fans are usually expected to rotate is around 80-220 rpm or 8.37-23 radians per second

The radial forces acting on the aluminum blade is F = m?2r where m is the mass of the aluminum blade, ? is the angular velocity and r is the radial distance of the center of mass of aluminum blade from the vertex. The radial distance of the center of mass of the aluminum blade to the center point of the hub = Hub radius + ½ length of blade

= 6cm +7cm = 13cm

Thus the maximum radial force for 23 radians per second = 0.65 N

The weight of the aluminum plate is = 0.092 N

The Aluminum plate is connected to the plastic plate by 2 bolts.

Suppose we use a M2 bolt made of low or medium carbon steel, fully or partially annealed. The Ultimate tensile strength is 1176N

The Ultimate shear strength can be approximated by

Therefore the Ultimate shear strength is = 882 N

The Shear stress acting in the radial direction t = F/[dÃ-(t1+t2)]

= 162500 N/

For calculating the Shear stress acting in the tangential direction, we write the moment equation for the bolt.

Therefore the Shear stress on the bolt acting in the tangential direction is =

= 26750 N/

Now to check for the effect of fatigue on the bolt, we check the S-N curve for Carbon steel. It is to be noted that after = 560N

The tensile strength acting on the bolt is much lesser and thus there is no problem of the bolt breaking due to fatigue.


We thus see that the radial force acting on our blades is much more than the weight of the aluminum blade acting downward. It is also more than the tangential stress acting on the bolt. It is also observed that due to the small size of our fan, even one bolt can support each blade. But for balance sake we shall change the design to place the bolts symmetrically across the radial center line from the hub to the blade. Thus a three bolt joint would help create better stability and would prevent wobbling conditions. Since we are using Aluminum blades over plastic blades, we can try to reduce cost by including three blades instead of four. The effect of adding an extra blade does not increase the air flow much, so the fourth blade can be avoided.


Since we have decided on using a 3 bolt joint to fix the blade to the plastic plate, the position of the plastic plate can be shifted on above the aluminum blade for better aesthetic values.

It is also clear from our analysis that bigger fan blades can be used for better performance without compromising on the fear of fracture.

We could make the baldes from plastic, as it would reduce the cost and make the manufacturing process easier, but it would risk deformation.

Since we are looking for using durable blades that can be used in outdoor conditions too, we shall neglect the use of wood and stick to using aluminum as our blade material.


  1. Thomas Cartwright (2005), “Fan Blade”, Publication number: US 2004/0047735 A1.
  2. Norton, Robert L (2006), “Machine Design-An Integrated Approach”, Pearson Prentice Hall.
  3. Leigh A. Junkin (1992), “Fan Blade”, US Patent 5,110,261, Google patents.
  4. Kuo-Neng Chien (1994), “Ceiling Fan Blade”, US Patent 5,338,156, Google patents.
  5. GarrettD.Euler (2002), “Standard Metric and USA Bolt Shank Dimensions”, available at <> [26th April]
  6. Dane Roger, Patricia (2001), “Eye on Design”, Washington post.
  7. Roy Beardmore (2010), “Bolted Joint Design”, available at < > [25thApril]
  8. H.W. Hayden, W.G. Moatt, and J. Wulff (1965), “Structure and Properties of Materials” John Wiley & Sons.
  9. Robert B Gelbard, (1964), “Mold for molding dynamically”, US Patent 3,136,001, 1964 – Google Patents.
  10. Brydson, J (1999), “Plastics Materials”, Butterworths 9th Ed.

Tristram Shandy’s Paradox

According to an Encyclopedia entry on (2009) it is generally considered that the publications of Laurence Sterne’s The Life and Opinion of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman had a dominant effect on literature of that time. Like his contemporary writers, Sterne debated publicly upon the boundary between literature and philosophy, that’s why his book is filled with allusions and references to philosophers, critics and writers of the 17th and 18th centuries namely: Pope, Locke, and Swift. It seems that those leading thinkers influenced Sterne’s The Life and Opinion of Tristram Shandy, Gentlemanimmensely. For instance, sagacious Locke’s (1690) contributed ideas and frameworks that Sterne explored throughout his novel, thus showing his engagement with the science and philosophy of his day:

Pray, Sir, in all the reading which you have ever read, did you ever read such a book as Locke’s Essay upon the Human Understanding? –Don’t answer me rashly–because many, I know, quote the book, who have not read it–and many have read it who understand it not:–If either of these is your case, as I write to instruct, I will tell you in three words what the book is.– It is a history.–A history! of who? what? where? when? Don’t hurry yourself–It is a history-book, Sir, (which may possibly recommend it to the world) of what passes in a man’s own mind; and if you will say so much of the book, and no more, believe me, you will cut no contemptible figure in a metaphysick circle. (Tristram Shandy, ch. 1 XXVII, p. 40)

Many people believe that Sterne’s novelThe Life and Opinion of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman differs drastically from the contemporary literature of both Defoe and Richardson by his methods of narrative construction and exploration of the external world. Tristram Shandy is presented in the very act of creation and change by rejecting realism, but examining inner states of consciousness. In addition, what sets Tristram Shandy apart from its contemporary fiction is the use of language.

It appears to me that this novel is an example of “process writing to the moment” where time is tied to and belongs to the protagonist. That kind of process writing in Lawrence Sterne’s novel, where the persona of author is trying desperately to write his autobiography, leads to one of the time paradoxes. It takes Tristram Shandy one year to record the events of a single day of his life. Tristram laments that, at this rate, he will never finish.

I am this month one whole year older than I was this time twelve-month; and having got, as you perceive, almost into the middle of the fourth volume–and no farther than to my first day’s datis demonstrative that I have three hundred and sixty-four more days to write just now, than when I first set out; so that instead of advancing, as a common writer, in my work with what I have been doing at it on the contrary, I am just thrown so many volumes back was every day of my life to be as busy as this And why not? and the transactions and opinions of it to take up as much description And for what reason should they be cut short? at this rate I should just live 364 times faster than I should write It must follow, an’ please your worships, that the more I write, the more I shall have to write and consequently, the more your worships read, the more your worships will have to read” (Tristram Shandy, ch. 2 XVLIII, p. 126)

In order to link Tristram Shandy’s writing process with time paradoxes, I will briefly outline the background to Bertrand Russell’s theory. In his book The Principles of Mathematics,chapter XLIII on the philosophy of the infinite his analysis consists of the inquiry whether any contradiction can be found in the notion of infinite. In this specific chapter Russell’s crucial points are focused on the semantical and set-theoretical paradoxes or “antinomies as he calls them. The twentieth century philosopher, Bertrand Russell claimed that if Tristram Shandy were immortal he would be able to finish his autobiography. Russell’s assertion that Tristram would be able to complete this seemingly impossible task is the source of the Tristram Shandy paradox. And thus Russell concludes:

Tristram Shandy, as we know, took two years writing the history of the first two days of his life, and lamented that, at this rate, material would accumulate faster than he could deal with it, so that he could never come to an end. Now I maintain that, if he had lived for ever, and not wearied of his task, then, even if his life had continued as eventfully as it began, no part of his biography would have remained unwritten. This paradox, which, as I shall show, is strictly correlative to the Achilles, may be called for convenience the Tristram Shandy. (Russell, p. 358)

Russell’s theory consists of two powerful components in the Tristram Shandy paradox the number of days that Tristram lives and the number of days required writing about those days. The sum of those two quantities will logically give us the number of days Tristram needs to complete his autobiography. Assuming that Tristram were indeed immortal, then the number of days in his life would be infinite. If that were the case, the second quantity, the number of days it takes him to write about his life, would also be infinite as well as the sum of those two quantities. Thus we can conclude that, Tristram needs an infinite number of days to finish his autobiography. Given he were immortal, he would have an infinite number of days in which to write. Therefore, the key aspect of Russell’s argument is the capability of an immortal Tristram Shandy finishing his autobiography, since the number of days in his life is equivalent to the number of days required to write about his life as they are both infinite.

As far as Russell’s argument is concerned, it is not totally accepted. Many of his critics contend that Tristram Shandy could not possibly finish his autobiography – even if he were immortal. Again, assuming that it takes Tristram one year to record the events of one day of his life, then each day that Tristram lives adds a year to the time needed to complete his task, thus causing him to fall another year behind with each passing day. As a result, in this situation the amount of time needed for Tristram to write his autobiography is increasing faster than the amount of time he actually has in which to write. It would simply cause him to fall infinitely far behind. Hence, according to critics of Russell’s argument the immortality would not allow the protagonist, Tristram, to complete his task.

I strongly believe that both arguments outlined above are consistent as well as logically valid due to the case of the Tristram Shandy paradox. Nevertheless bearing in mind the previous points it could be said that the paradox discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901 suggested that actual infinity was not an issue to dismiss due to the uncertain nature of infinity. I suppose that Tristram Shandy’s paradox emphasizes the basic problem in getting to grips with infinity which has always been a remarkable enchantment for great philosophers and writers throughout history in its notion of unending space and distance, God and eternity, time and duration.

To understand what time is aright, without which we never can comprehend infinity, insomuch as one is a portion of the other–we ought seriously to sit down and consider what idea it is we have of duration, so as to give a satisfactory account how we came by it. –What is that to any body? quoth my uncle Toby. (Vide Locke.) (Tristram Shandy, ch. 2 XI, p. 84)

It is necessary to note that Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher, provided a main key by introducing the terms actual infinite and potential infinite in an attempt to distinguish between the two. He strongly believed that the completed or actual infinite could not exist. While on the other hand, potential infinite might be represented as a manifest in nature. There has been debate as to whether infinity is a reality or an idea. Rucker in his chapter 1 on Infinity helps us in characterizing it as follows Aristotle would say that the set of natural numbers is potentially infinite, since there is no largest natural number, but he would deny that the set is actually infinite, since it does not exist as one finished thing.(p. 3) Later on Rucker ends up suggesting that Aristotle’s belief is a “doubtful distinction agreeing with Cantor’s opinion that in truth the potentially infinite has only a borrowed reality, insofar as a potentially infinite concept always points towards a logically prior actually infinite concept whose existence it depends on.(p. 3) In other words an actual infinite is not like a potential one which is growing to the infinity as a limit, although giving a collection which is finite in time at every point.

If this is the case that potential infinite is growing to the infinite limit then I do believe in its existence. But as far as completed infinite is concerned, my supposition will be negative. I oppose to the fact that actual infinite exists. The concept of actual infinite seems to me as an idea or a succession of ideas in our mind while the notion of potential infinite is represented by the future. Granted that Tristram Shandy wrote one day of his autobiography for 365 days then in general what this will indicate is the sum of the two equivalents which would be constantly finite but increasing to the infinity as a limit. Thus I assume that a profound analysis of the Tristram Shandy’s paradox explained by Russell proves my suggestion that the narrator, Tristram Shandy, would never reach the completed or actual infinite. Hence he would never finish his autobiography.

Youtube The Best Way For Advertisements

Most businesses have no idea and how to present their video in front of the hold world people. So, YouTube is the most essential tool. This is because YouTube is the best way to enhance the products and services of company through video advertising and video tutorial. YouTube advertising is an online advertising which can let firm post up a lot of video to advertising their small company product and information because this online advertising system is very cheap with another advertisement. Those videos will show to all people in the world who have online in YouTube. The internet researchers can upload and watch their advertisement video and tutorials on the internet for free. Nowadays YouTube is a great new approach to promote business. Through the advertising of video in the YouTube, it can quickly present our new ideas and new services in front of people who able to use YouTube. Then the video tutorials are the fastest way to help people to understanding our business. Second, it can introduce our company to help building a bridge between us and client through the YouTube advertising. Furthermore, video advertising in the YouTube also can help to promoting new proposals and announcements of company’s product and services to every client. But it also has some disadvantages. For big business, the owners need to pay a higher fee to promote their products. Then the advertising of the business will clearly to show out in YouTube.

YouTube promoted video is easy to control and upload. At the first, the business owners have to create their video promotion. For example, they have to choose one of promoted video and write some promotional text or contents, and tell them which keywords should be trigger our promotion. Then the second step is launching your campaign. For example, the business owner can using their keywords, then the video promotion will now appear next to contextually relevant search results. The third step is get more views and pay only for results. For example, when the YouTube viewers click on your product promotion, they will see your video. So, you only need to pay when people click to see your video. But it also has some disadvantages. This YouTube advertising is poor campaign management when promoted any videos. It also has some currently limited features.

Blog advertising

Blog advertising is an e-commence system which can make selling and buying advertise space easy. This Blog advertising will share out to all internet users who has use Blog to do online shopping and show opinion. This blog advertising will be able to accept all advertisement type because this blog have offer the largest variety of advertise units.

This e-commence system has a lot of benefit to users. This blog advertising is free. The advertisers don’t have to pay for hosting and domain registration fees. So, the advertiser can save their money and no need to do another expensive advertisement such as Television advertisement, Newspaper advertisement and magazine advertisement. Moreover, this online system will be automatic updates the advertiser profiles. The business man can use the blog to advertise their own company products and content on their site. Then the business man can choose their available advertise sizes. So, advertiser can focus on building their blog’s traffic and content. The advertiser can use the blog advertising to develop their company goal and objective. Moreover, they also can do some promotion in blog.

Blog advertising can easy provide online credit card and PayPal payment to advertisers. Then, the advertisers can easily pay the fee of advertising. Blog advertising provides the 24 hours per day advertise performance reporting and statistics. Besides that, it also can display advertisement with rotating advertise versions. This online system can help to provide a simple and effective advertise formats to every searchers. Then, this blog have a comment space to all searchers and advertisers. So, the advertiser will be able respond all question and feedback for searcher. It also has some disadvantages. The advertisers cannot monetize their blog because all the advertisement is controlled by the internet owner, then the advertisers are not allowed to display their advertisements. Moreover, this online advertising has limited storage spaces and limited design.

In Google advertising we can found Google have two type of advertising method such as Google AdWords and Google AdSense. Google nowadays are already become a first search tools on internet. Google featuring is the most excellent web search. It’s including a list of Image search, Current news, User group, online sales, Government document and Article research. When using Google to searching company product you can type the value turn of phrase into Google search box then we can quickly find the answer. Besides that, Google is without charge to use and the result is according from most popular or least popular.

In Google AdSense is it a dominant advertising instrument is due to the detail that the advertising it displays is designed to create a center of attention to the buyers on the websites which are place on. For an example, an online shop sells cloths for a company. In this way, the buyer’s wants buy new and their favorite cloths or other country fashion cloths, they can search by online and also can order. Google AdSense also despite of how big or small your company’s website is, and how you can gross by using this websites advertising methods. Google AdSense also can make you got a rewarded based on how many times your advertisement are clicked on by the visitors. If the submission keeps follow of each click then totals them, and deposits to a related sum into the bank and account to your record with them. By this way, if a company having without to put forth much effort at all, your website can gross profits.

Which company is using Google AdSense, it will become an elegant marketing plan such as, exposure which means a millions people over the world who can found out about the company’s products and services through this advertising. This will be sure to increase interchange to company site and company sales. The second is extra earnings which can let you get extra income as more people begin to click on your advertising. For hits the target enlarges, the benefits from AdSense advertising are gain to the company. The third is control. This function is simple to set of connections on company website and permits some control over what websites are advertised on your site. By using filters, for example, you can make sure that competitors do not use your website space to advertise their advertisement. Well, Google AdSense also easy to sign up. It is because the online application for signing up only need fill some details of the person and it is a free application.

Facebook advertising already become an online sells in websites. Nowadays, company can specifically target the advertisement placement system. The site has massive a list of individual information of nation as well as age, gender, address, likes, dislikes, marital status, employment information and the live stream of present significances. This means Facebook has a lot of power to target the nation see the product. For this advertisement, we can choose the located by selecting a very detailed information of a customer profiles. Well, by this function, we can reach the target from the consumer are more directly and more easy to get the increasing of profit for company.

As we can know is Facebook advertising can save more expenses. For example, a small company wants advertise their product with less expensive fees, they can choose Facebook advertising. It is because best and easy method. You just need sign up an account and create your advertisement, therefore it become a less expensive advertisement method. Besides that, this advertising method has a greater elasticity as 135 characters of a long word limits on the advertising and elasticity to decide on content. In this advertising method, we can add on the image of products and we also can put up advertising according to our daily advertisement budget.

The way to promote is create a Facebook page of business and provides with the newest details and updates about the products to the consumer. This also becomes a greater and more direct for consumers to search. Facebook also have a good benefit of using like features. One of the advantages of advertising on Facebook is ‘Like’ or ‘Fan’ characteristic which provides the means for word of mouth marketing via news feed. For example, if any user ‘likes’ your advertisement, then it will become a broadcasted to all of his/her friends who have subscribed to his/her news feed. So if you netting one of the consumers through an advertisement, you have the opportunity of net a lot more.

In between, it’s also a goods and suitable for an online business. Its can find out an income from getting out to the customer of a precise geographical locations and individual profiles. As long as the experience of invitation can let you reach the word about newest offers provided by your business.