Leonhard Euler

Born in Basel, Switzerland on 15th April 1707, Leonhard Euler was arguably the brightest mathematician of all time. The Swiss mathematician and physicist is considered a pioneer in many fields of mathematics. He introduced a lot of the mathematical terminology and notation used today and he is considered the father of mathematical analysis where, for instance, he introduced the notation of a mathematical function, f(x). His contributions to the field of mathematics are in analytic and differential geometry, calculus, the calculus of variation, differential equations, series and the theory of numbers. In physics, although really all his contributions to mathematics apply to physics, he introduced both rigid body mechanics and analytical mechanics (Kline, 401-402).

Born to Paul Euler and Margarete Bruckner, Leonhard was the first of six children. He grew up in Riehen but attended school in Basel. Although mathematics was not taught in his school his father had kindled his interest in the subject (Paul Euler had been friends with another great mathematician at the time, Johann Bernoulli) by giving him lessons at home. Euler entered university at the age of 13 at the University of Basel. Although his official courses of study were philosophy and law, Euler met with Johann Bernoulli who advised Euler and gave him help with his mathematical studies on Saturday afternoons (Stillwell, 188).

Euler lived and worked mainly in Russia and Germany. First he joined the faculty at St Petersburg Academy of Sciences were he worked at first in the medical department then he was quickly promoted to a senior position in the department of mathematics through the influence of his friend Daniel Bernoulli. He also helped the Russian government on many projects including serving in the Russian navy as a medical Lieutenant. After the death of Catherine I in1740 and because of the tough conditions that ensued, Euler moved to Germany at the invitation of Prussian King, Frederick II to the Prussian Academy of Science were he stayed for the next 25 years of his life. Euler gave much service to the Academy which compensated him generously. He sent most of his works to be published there, served as a representative as well as advising the Academy on its many scientific activities. It is there that he reached the peak of his career writing about 225 memoirs on almost every topic in physics and mathematics (Varadarajan, 11).

Euler returned to St. Petersburg in 1766 under the invitation of the then czarina Catherine the Great (Catherine II) to the St Petersburg Academy. During this period he lost almost all his eyesight through a series of illnesses becoming nearly totally blind by 1771. Nevertheless, his remarkable memory saw him writing about 400 memoirs during this time. It is said that he had a large slate board fixed to his desk where he wrote in large letters so that he could view dimly what was being written. He died on the 18th day of September 1783 due to cerebral hemorrhaging. It is also recorded that he was working even to his last breath; calculations of the height of flight of a hot air balloon were found on his board (Varadarajan 13).

Euler’s contribution to Mathematics and Physics was a lot. His ideas in analysis led to many advances in the field. Euler is famously known for the development of function expressions like the addition of terms, proving the power series expansion, the inverse tangent function and the number e:

∑ (xn/n!)= lim ((1/0!) + (x/1!) + (x2/2!) +…+ (xn/n!) ) =ex

The power series equation in fact helped him solve the famous 1735 Basel problem:

∑ (1/n2) = lim ((1/12) + (1/22) + (1/32) + …+(1/n2)) = π2/6

He introduced the exponential function, e, and used it plus logarithms in analytic proofs. He also defined the complex exponential function and a special case now known as the Euler’s Identity:

eiφ = cos φ + isin φ


eiπ + 1= 0 (Euler’s Identity)

In fact, De Moivre’s formula for complex functions is derived from Euler’s formula. Similarly, De Moivre is recognized for the development of calculus of variations, formulating the Euler-Lagrange equation. He was also the first to use solve problems of number theory using methods of analysis. Thus, he pioneered the theories of hyperbolic trigonometric functions, hyper geometric series, the analytic theory of continued fractions and the q-series. In fact, his work in this field led to the progress of the prime number theorem (Dunham 81).

The most prominent notation introduced by Euler is f(x) to denote the function, f that maps the variable x. In fact he is the one who introduced the notion of a function to the field of mathematics. He introduced, amongst others, the letter ∑ to mean the sum, π for the proportion regarding the perimeter of a circle up to the span or the diameter, i for the imaginary unit, √(-1) and the e (2.142…) to represent the base of the natural logarithm.

Euler also contributed to Applied Mathematics. Interestingly enough, he developed some Mathematics applications into music by which he hoped to incorporate musical theory in mathematics. This was however, not successful. This notwithstanding, Euler did solve real-world problems by applying analytical techniques. For instance, Euler incorporated the Method of Fluxions which was developed by Newton together with Leibniz’s differential calculus to develop tools that eased the application of calculus in physical problems. He is remembered for improving and furthering the numerical approximation of integrals, even coming up with the Euler approximations. More broadly, he helped to describe many applications of the constants π and e, Euler numbers, Bernoulli numbers and Venn diagrams.

The Euler-Bernoulli beam equation (one of the most fundamental equations in engineering) is just one of the contributions of the mathematician to physics. He used his analytical skills in classical mechanics and used the same methods in solving celestial problems. He determined the orbits of celestial bodies and calculated the parallax of the sun. He differed with Newton (then the authority in physics) on his corpuscular theory of light. He supported the wave theory of light proposed by Hugens.

Euler’s contributions to graph theory are at the heart of the field of topology. He is famously known to have solved the Seven Bridges of Konigsberg problem, the solution of which is considered the first theorem of planar graph theory. He introduced the formula


It is a mathematical formula relating vertices, edges and faces of a planar graph or polyhedron. The constant in the above formula in now called the Euler characteristic.

Euler is also recognized for the use of closed curves in the provision of explanation concerning reasoning which is of syllogistic nature. Afterwards the illustration or diagrams were referred to as the Euler diagrams.

The Number Theory is perhaps the most difficult branch of mathematics. Euler used ideas in analysis linking them with the nature of prime numbers to provide evidence that the total of all the reciprocals of prime numbers diverges. He also discovered the link between the primes Riemann zeta function, what is now called the Euler product formula for the Riemann zeta function. Euler made great strides in the Lagrange four-square theorem while proving Fermat’s theorem on the sum of two squares, Fermat’s Identities and Newton’s identities. Number theory consists of several divisions which include the following: Algebraic Number Theory, Combinational Number theory, Analytic Number Theory, Transcendental number theory, Geometric number theory and lastly we have the Computational Number Theory.

For his numerous contributions to academia, Euler won numerous awards. He won the Paris Academy Prize twelve times over the course of his career. He was elected as a foreign member, in 1755, of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences while his image has been featured on many Russian, Swiss and German postage stamps. Above all, he was respected greatly amongst his academic peers demonstrated by a statement made by the great French mathematician, Laplace to his students to read Euler since he was the master of them all (Dunham xiii).

Though not all of the proofs of Euler are satisfactory in regard to the current standards or principles used in mathematics, the ideas created by him are of great importance. They have set a path to the current mathematical advancements.

To conclude, we can therefore say that Euler is a very significant person in the development and advancement of Mathematics. His work has contributed a lot to mathematics up to the current period.


Dunham, William. Euler: The Master of Us All. Dolciani Mathemathical Expositions Vol. 22. MAAA, 1999.

Kline, Morris. Mathematical Thoughts from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol 2. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Stillwell, John. Mathematics and its History. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. Springer, 2002.

Varadarajan, V. S. Euler Through Time: A New Look at Old Themes. AMS Bookstore, 2006.

Unhealthy Lifestyles And Obese Children

The figure of obesity children is rapidly increasing due to their unhealthy lifestyle and eating habit such as addicted to fast food, video games, and online games which occur in most of the children community nowadays. Unhealthy lifestyle caused most of the children dislike physical bodily movement and lack of physical fitness. A number of researchers involved in teaching physical classes always emphasize the relationship between decreasing of participation in physical activity towards increasing of health-related risks such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (Domangue, 2009). We as physical teachers have to understand factors leading to children physical inactivity. It is very important to understand why youngsters withdraw themselves from physical activity as they get matured. In physical education classes, fitness testing act as a very crucial component which help to create awareness of health concerns on physical inactivity cases especially among children (Domangue, 2009). Physical activity is defined as any type (mild, moderate, vigorous) of bodily movement for instance jumping rope, soccer, weight lifting, running, walking, taking stairs and others which can be our daily routine activities, recreational activities, as well as sport activities. Literally, health-related physical fitness means physical activity that involved mild or adverse physical body movement that contribute to their general body health (Karinharju, 2005). School-based physical class explains when participant is physically active, heart pumping rate increases and produces heavier breathing than normal breathing. Unfortunately, a lot of schools neglected physical education class and only focus on physical class. In fact, physical education and physical activity are equally important elements that contribute towards children health development.

In Silverman et.al. (2008) paper stated youth fitness testing was designed to embarrass those children who are less capable in physical activity. Those children who cannot perform well especially those obese children will be insulted by their peers and eventually they will withdraw themselves from involving in physical activity. We should not turn children down in physical activity by right as a school teacher we should help children to cultivate interest in physical activity. For instance, a plump children will feel embarrass while doing stretching. They might unable to reach the desired point and will be laughed by their peers. Girls might not like to play soccer, running around the field fighting for a ball. They might prefer jumping rope. So while designing fitness testing, more consideration should be taken such as gender, body size and fitness. As a physical teacher, we should help students to learn more about fitness and physical activity in order to promote positive attitudes on physical activity.

I further belief if fitness testing was used in positive and appropriate ways it will enhance students’ physical educational experience as well as promote good attitudes and interest. There is few discussion on fitness testing has been done in recent years and the discussions were basically taken in three forms. First, some researchers suggest discontinuing school-based youth fitness testing in physical education program. Because school teachers are more focus on students’ activity performance instead of health-related fitness (Silverman, 2008; Rowland, 1995; Corbin et al., 1995). Second, researchers suggested that school-based physical classes should emphasize on educational aspects. Tests and teaching should carried out together to help to improve students’ fitness and knowledge (Silverman, 2008; Cale & Harris, 2002; Corbin & Pangrazi, 1993). Lastly, thorough examination of student fitness achievement testing is needed before designing and making decision on the future of physical class context and tests. (Silverman, 2008; Cale et al., 2007; Corbin et al., 1995; Keating & Silverman, 2004).

To be physically fit, one has to be physically active. Definition for physical fitness is an “adaptive state that varies with the individual’s growth and maturity status and with habitual activity and lifestyle” (Domangue, 2009; Malina, Bouchard & Bar-Or, 2004). Furthermore, physical fitness can be categorized into two categories which is health-related fitness and performance-related fitness. Health-related fitness is fitness that everyone needs which contributes to maintain and improve health status of our body. Performance-related fitness refers to skilled athletes or performers who need to be success or excel in their performance in sports activities. Basically, health-related fitness is assessed by measuring cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular endurance, strength, and body fat content or body mass index (BMI) (Hale, 2005; Corbin, 2005).

Rowland, 1995 drew a conclusion that physical teachers should not stop fitness testing, but should implement fitness tests in the physical education curriculum. Children and adults have different used of fitness test. So, while planning physical activities, this should be taken in concern. Children cannot decide whether to participate in fitness testing or how to use the results of those physical assessments. Whereas, adults are able to decide and choose whether to use fitness testing as a summative assessment to check their current health-related fitness levels of how fit they are at the period of time or as formative assessment to continuously assess health-related fitness level in order to modify fitness program as part of program planning. Adults who decided to go for either formal (with trainers) or informal training (self-training) already ready and have some commitment to do physical activity. But children do not have such commitment and do not know how to make decision. Therefore, youth fitness testing can have opposite result if it is not perform appropriately, and will have consequences to develop negative attitude and patterns of physical activity among children. But, youth fitness testing should play an important role in school physical education setting in order to enhance students fitness (Silverman, 2008; Bar-Or, 1993; Cale & Harris, 2002; Whitehead, Pemberton & Corbin, 1990), and implementation of fitness testing should be examined often to prevent any deviation that will result in the misuse of fitness tests (Silverman, 2008).

In order to have positive impact of physical testing in school, silverman has suggested some guidelines to implement a positive impact fitness test. First, youth fitness testing should be integrated as a part of fitness instruction in curriculum. Although assessment is important goal of teaching but without a solid curriculum it is merely testing (Stewart, Elliot, Boyce & Block, 2005). Second, fitness testing result should be used by teachers to assess their fitness instruction and enhance students’ learning (Corbin, 1981) while physical classes. Long-term and short-term outcomes of fitness testing of children should be taken into concern by teachers and curriculum planners planning for future activities. Third, the point of having physical class is for students to improve their body fitness and towards meeting their healthy zone standard. We should teach students not to assume that fitness testing will automatically increase their physical activity levels but it is just to test their body fitness. It is important to understand their body fitness and help to design future activities. If fitness testing was used appropriately and used as an educational tool, it has the potential to promote physical activity and also help to improve health-related fitness. In many schools in Malaysia, students are only required to be tested on fitness test once in a year. Compare to academic tests physical test is far lesser. During fitness tests, Instructional time spent on fitness testing should not be ignored. Without positively increasing youngsters’ physical activity levels and health-related fitness does not make sound use of fitness tests.

Health-related fitness testing should be carried out in school, and it is important to include both physical activity and also health-related fitness in physical education class so that student will able to understand the difference and complementary nature of the concepts (Silverman, 2008). Health-related fitness has to be taught as part of curriculum so that student able to understand the concept and the purpose of the test. Health-related fitness testing also can be used as a tool to examine concepts and components of health-related fitness and physical activity. For example, while teacher introducing the sit-up test, teacher can discuss on the anatomy of the body and the function of the muscles involved and how the body perform the activity and how to improve their strength and endurance. Provide important information and knowledge while doing the activity, student can understand better the purpose of having each test and also prevent to get injured. Without proper knowledge, students are more tend to get injured, due to lack of knowledge of proper posture undergoing particular activity. Teacher has to educate students the correct posture and way to perform those activity to protect our body muscle and anatomy. Lacking important knowledge might influence students’ performance, motivation and interest as well. Eventually, they will cultivate negative attitude and their bad experiences in physical education will influence their attitudes towards future assessment and physical activity and eventually cause them to withdraw from physical activity.

Another reason why teaching both health-related fitness and physical activity is important, because the current examination of physical activity assessment program may mislead students into thinking that regular participation in any mild to moderate physical activity for 30-60 minutes is sufficient to maintain their health. NASPE recommends those children aged 5 to 12 years should be physically active for at least 60 minutes to several hours of per day (Domangue, 2009). As children get matured, the recommended duration for physical activity varies. Adolescents need lesser hour to be physically active compare to children. They need only 30-60 minutes daily (Yesalonia, 2009). Unfortunately, many school-aged students have too little opportunity to participate in these recommended physical activities during school hour. In this situation, students are required to balance their physical activity levels outside the school as extra-curriculum.

Outside the regular school hours, many children could be physically active in sedentary activities such as homework, computers and video-games which children only required to sit on chair. This can affect activity levels of school-aged children. Perhaps the most important time for children to be active is after school is between three and six p.m. But often children nowadays are not, they will rather spend time on sedentary activities or their academic curriculum. Parents have press more on their academic rather than their physical achievements and also safety issues parents stop letting children to involve in physical activities. . As a school teacher, we should encourage parents to allow their children to be physically active instead of filling all those active hours with tuitions, piano classes and homework. Children can have opportunity to be active after school hours by participating in extra-curricular activity programs, such as basket ball, soccer, as well as community-based activity programs. Remember, physical activity and health-related fitness is both equally important. We should not too emphasize on physical achievement and ignore the basic understanding on health-related fitness.

Through the health-related fitness testing, teacher is responsible to educate students the purpose of participating in a variety of physical activity form and methods to improve corresponding health-related fitness components as well as the recommended duration in performing physical activity. Health-related fitness testing is an excellent context to teach students to examine on both health-related fitness and physical activity concept. Students can understand health-related fitness not only improve their health level (Silverman, 2008; Simons-Morton et al., 1988) but also their cognitive skills (Hillman, Castelli, & Buck 2005). School-based physical classes may not done an adequate job in teaching students on the importance of health-related fitness or have taught separately with physical activity. If health-related fitness testing is done separately, there is no way that student will develop the knowledge that can be developed from an understanding of both health-related fitness and physical activity assessment.

Teacher should teach assessment skills to students. If student able to use fitness test for self-assessment, they are able to use the understanding of health-related fitness learned during physical class and able to plan their own physical activity programs according to their desired target. Students were taught that fitness testing can be used as formative assessment to develop and modify their physical activity routines to help them have the knowledge to start an appropriate level. Assessment skills also able to help students keep participating in physical activity if they know what their expected goal is. The formative testing experience will reinforce fitness gains and also enhance additional motivation for students to continue involved in physical activity (Silverman, 2008). Students learn to compare the scores with their previous performance and to design a suitable goals and activity according to their body level. Applications of appropriate use of fitness tests taught in class equip students with the knowledge and skills to participate and to select appropriate physical activity and help them to perform self-assessment.

To incorporating health-related fitness assessment into fitness education, teacher should teach students the purpose of doing the fitness test or other fitness-based activity. Student should understand the instructional content before performing the test. Then, fitness testing should be formative. Teacher should plan the educational experience to use fitness testing results to design future activity for students while also teaching students that health-related fitness can be improved and assessment is integral to that process. Another way is to conduct fitness education by infusing fitness lessons into curriculum. This can be done by relating each activity done to fitness. So, student will have better understanding on how those activities related and improve their body fitness, why that aspect of fitness is important. With that knowledge, students are able to understand and eventually improve their performance on that activity. For example, students participate in school gymnasium should know that gymnasium activity are exercising their heart and will help make them healthy and good for their heart. They should know the health-related fitness component is called aerobic fitness and helps to prevent heart disease. With this understanding, students were being more motivated on physical activity. The use of fitness test helps students to understand health-related fitness and how testing can be used to improve and enhance fitness.

Infusing health-related fitness test in physical education can increase student knowledge, attitudes and fitness. In primary schools students, teacher will help students in assessment and plan their future physical activity, but in secondary school, after fitness testing, students could provide an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses and develop a fitness program suitable to them. Teacher could use variety of teaching strategies such as reciprocal teaching, self-check against predetermined rubrics and assessments such as using the analysis and plan for providing feedback to the students (Silverman, 2008) to help students to improve and also to monitor their program.

Planning and assessment of physical activity is necessary in order to improve students’ learning experience and to meet the goals of instructions (Silverman, 2008). Without assessment, we are unable to know our standard and level. Teachers act as a reflection as a form of assessment to assess fitness education the result of the assessment is for the teacher to do self-assessment and reflect on the lesson. Teacher means act as a problem solvers (i.e., design the content or lesson to achieve goal and to assess achievement of the goal, and whether there are other better ways to enhance instruction). Second step is student learning. Fitness testing result is to examine student learning from multiple perspectives (increase various component of health-related fitness, increases in physical activity, attitude toward fitness and physical activity). This health-related fitness test may tell how fit students are, ignoring the fitness improvement, physical activity and attitude development. Next is the appropriate use of accountability for assessing fitness education. Principals should be aware that fitness testing may lead negative consequences. Always ensure that the test is use appropriately and must be used within the context and perform a complete fitness education program if we want students to live in physically active lives. Assessment and accountability program should design appropriately and examine from time to time being as one aspect of student assessment and physical grading.

As a school physical education teacher, I strongly believe that health-related fitness tests that are used in an appropriate educational manner can be a useful tool to enhance student learning and also health level. Although there is wide variation in the capabilities of students, the main purpose of fitness instruction should be that every student can work towards being fit and reach healthy level. While designing the test, physical class teachers should consider those less capability students and help them to improve by educating health-related fitness. The main focus on physical education should be on evolving fitness process, students’ participation regardless on performance and result achieved. A well-planned physical fitness program with a positive classroom environment is very crucial to yield positive attitude, interest and motivation of students on physical activity especially for those less capability. Teachers should put more efforts on those students who may feel fitness testing is an embarrassment. Silverman (2008) suggested that assessment methods can move from group administration of test to pairs testing or self-assess. It can help to utilize time better, develop self-assessment skills and less embarrassing for most students.

In a nutshell, I agree to infuse health-related fitness in physical class. Both physical activity and health-related fitness is equaled important to enhance body fitness and health. In order to have positive outcome, physical educator should designed an appropriate program for students in order to improve their fitness and encourage them to participate in physical activity and not to emphasize on performance achieved. Educators have to alert those students who are less capable in physical activities and encourage them, support them to involve in physical activity and educate them on health-related fitness. So that they can understand why they need to do that particular activity and what is the benefits of doing that. Educators should stress more on health-related fitness rather than performance-related fitness.

Cale, L., Harris, J. (2002). National testing for children: Issues, concerns, and alternatives. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 33 (1), 32-34.

Cale, L., Harris, J., Chen, M.H. (2007). More than 10 years after “The horse is dead…”: Surely it must be time to “dismount”?! Pediatric Exercise Sciences, 19, 115-131.

Corbin, C.B. (1981). First things first but don’t stop there. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 52(1), 36-38.

Corbin, C.B. (2005). Keynote address: Promoting active living: The key to shaping up for a lifetime. Vermont Association of Health, Physical Education, Dance, and Recreation Fall Conference. November, 2005. Killington, Vermont.

Corbin, C.B., Pangrazi, R.P. (1993). Physical fitness: Questions teachers ask. Journal of Physical Education, Research and Dance, 64 (7), 14-19.

Corbin, C.B., Pangrazi, R.P., Welk, G.L. (1995). A response to “The horse is dead: Let’s dismount.” Pediatric Exercise Science, 7, 347-351.

Domangue, E.A. (2009). A critical examination into motivation and gender in youth physical fitness testing (Doctoral dissertation), Louisiana State University, LA.

Hale, D. (2005). An invitation to health. (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning, Inc.

Hillman, C.H., Castelli, D.M., Buck, S.M. (2005). Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37, 1967-1974.

Karinharju, K (2005). Physical fitness and its testing in adults with intellectual disability. (Master dissertation), University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.

Keating, X.D., Silverman, S. (2004). Teachers’ use of fitness tests in school-based physical education programs. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 8, 145-165.

Malina, R.M., Bouchard, C., Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Rowland, T.W. (1995). The horse is dead; Let’s dismount. Pediatric Exercise Science, 7, 117-120.

Silverman, S., Keating, X.D., Phillips, S.R. (2008). A lasting impression: A pedagogical perspective on youth fitness testing. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 12: 146-166

Simons-Morton, B.G., Parcel, G.S., O’Hara, N.M., Blair, S.N., Pate, R.R. (1988). Health-related physical fitness in childhood: status and recommendations. Annual Review of Public Health, 9, 403-425.

Yesalonia, S. (2009). Understanding school students’ perspectives regarding physical activity and fitness (Doctoral dissertation), Available from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3352936)

The Interpretation of Images

Does the person (or people) who produce a work (image, film, artwork etc.) ultimately control its meaning and interpretation?

The relationship between a person and/or people controlling a piece of work, and thus its meaning, are closely inter-related. Photographers, for example, hold multiple theories. One photographer may concur with the notion of inter-relation, whilst another may hold an idea contradictory – theories that support a negative interpretation of, in this case, an image. Throughout this essay I will be looking into different photographers views on meanings of a piece of work and authorship. I will be doing this by comparing the photographers’ views, concluding the questions answer s and then explaining my opinion and summarising the essay.
I believe most photographers agree that they have full control of the meaning or interpretation of an image, when we look at an image and read then read the concept behind it we are led to believe that, that is the intended meaning of that piece of work. However, sometimes when we are looking into contradicting and deceiving images that is when the public eye notice that the concept may not be what the photographer intended to show through his photographs.
It is common practice for photographers to use various methods to analyse the meaning and interpretation of an image. They have a choice as to the method employed, which can give results ranging from the qualitative, to the quantitative.
Kevin Carter’s Pulitzer Prize, given for an award-winning image of a malnourished Sudanese child, is one particular example of how the intended meaning of an image can actually be interpreted. The image signified no celebration – a child barely surviving, and a vulture eager for carrion. However, this image which epitomised Sudan’s famine would go on to win Kevin Carter fame, from previous hopes of a career built on hounding the news, free-lancing in war-ravaged countries, and waiting anxiously for assignments amid dire finances; he would stay in the line of fire for that one great image.


The photograph was sold to ‘The New York Times’ where it appeared on 26 March 1993, as a ‘metaphor for Africa’s despair’. Overnight, hundreds contacted the newspaper to ask if the child has survived. As a result, the newspaper ran an unusual special editors’ note explaining to the public that the girl did have enough strength to get away from the vulture, but that her ultimate fate was unknown. Journalists within Sudan were requested not to touch victims of famine due to the risk of disease transmission. Despite this, Carter came under aggressive criticism for not helping the girl. The‘St. Petersburg Times’in Florida wrote “The man adjusting his lens to take just the right frame of her suffering might just as well be a predator, another vulture on the scene.’’[1]
The approach that public opinion doomed on Carter was not only that of taking the image instead of immediately chasing the vulture away, but also the element that he did not help the small girl afterwards who clearly needed help. Then again, as Carter explained later that he left her in such a weak condition to continue the march by herself towards the feeding centre. Kevin Carter committed suicide two years after receiving the Pulitzer Prize.
We are led to believe that Kevin Carter’s suicide note is as followed:
“Im really, really sorry. The pain of life overrides the joy to the point that joy does not exist… depressed… without phone… money for rent… money for child support… money for debts… money!!! I am haunted by the vivid memories of killings and corpses and anger and pain of starving or wounded children, of trigger-happy madmen, often police, of killer executioners… I have gone to joinKenif I am that lucky.”[6]
Joanne Cauciella Bonica, Massapequa, New York expressed her feelings to the world by saying “It is ironic that Kevin Carter won the Pulitzer for a photograph which to me is a photograph of his own soul and exemplifies his own life. Kevin is that small child huddled up against the world, and the vulture is what we could call ‘the angel of death’. I just wish someone would have chased that evil from his life. I’m sure that little child surrendered to death just as Kevin did. Both must have suffered significantly.”[7]

This is a prime example of whether the photographer, the producer of the image, has ultimate control over the meaning and interpretation of their work. An analysis into Kevin Carter’s ‘vulture stalking a child’ image reveals that his intentions were only to show a bird spreading its wings. On the contrary, the result was much more haunting – on the most basic level, it is interpreted as an image of a predator and its prey, by the viewers. Following such observations and information requests to The New York Times, the viewers altered the meaning of the image, from one that should have shown a vulture spreading its wings, to one which displays a cruel, heart-breaking, and cultural issues image.
“He heard a soft, high-pitched sobbing and saw a tiny girl trying to make her way to the feeding centre. As he crouched to photograph her, a vulture landed in sight. Trying careful not to disturb the bird, he positioned himself for the best possible image. He later then said he waited patiently for about 20 minutes, hoping the vulture would spread its wings. However it did not, and after he took his photographs, he claimed to chase the bird away, yet still watched as the little girl continued her struggle to the feeding centre.”[2]
Therefore, when we look back at the question, does the person (or people) who produce a work (image, film, artwork etc.) ultimately control its meaning and interpretation? We can look at this question in many different ways when we begin to deconstruct the image bit by bit, so we can observe many different individual parts of this image to interpret.
When we look at this image whole, what we are pushed to believe that the image is representing a malnourished Sudanese child that is crying for help, you could say the image is showing awareness of what is happening in different areas of the world.
However, if we were to deconstruct this image, the concept of the photograph is completely changed to a wild animal looking for its pray to pounce on. Which then relates to wildlife/documentary photography. Then again, if we were to deconstruct the image the other way around we would see a raising awareness image of the people of Sudan needing help, instead of the journalist photography that Kevin Carter is so highly known for.

KevinCartePulitzer1994 KevinCartePulitzer1994
‘’The rule of thirds is applied by aligning a subject with the guidelines and their intersection points, placing the horizon on the top or bottom line, or allowing linear features in the image to flow from section to section.’’[3]
When looking into the rules of thirds we frame the photograph and imagine it divided into 9 individual parts of the image, as a photographer when using the rule of thirds properly we try to position the main parts of the photograph near the lines and intersections of the grid. Therefore, when we look at Kevin Carters image using this method, we see that the vulture and child meet the criteria of the rule of thirds rules, the main aspects of the image line up with the main centre lines of the grid. This could be known as a perfect picture, if you will. However, we are told that Carter’s intentions of this image was to take a picture of the bird ‘spreading its wings’ and flying away.
Carter must have been set up in a position where if he did take the image it would be seen as a perfect image, then again because this was the image he produced instead, this one turned out to be ‘The perfect image in photography rules.’

Stephen Bull

Discourses are infamously tricky to evaluate. Ever since the 1970’s this idea of disclosure has perfected, absorbed and if you will replaced the theory of ideology. Its use in the analysis of photographs, ideology generally devises from the writings of the French philosopher Michel Foucault. However in summary of Foucault’s work the definition of disclosure is known as ‘a groups statements which structure the way a thing is thought, and the way we act on the basis of that thinking,’[4]. All of the elements around a certain photographs or photographic practice’ are its wide-ranging perspective that is produced and then how it is thought about.

Therefore to illustrate this idea, it is useful to scrutinise thoroughly many different theories such as Martin Parr’s conservative ‘Midsummer Madness’ party has been expressed through a number of discourses, the originally meaning has been re-interpreted, sometimes subtly, other times significantly in its process.

The cost of Living conservative Midsummer Madness is part of the documentary discourse – where ‘things as they are’ are shown. Many writers such as John Tagg would have been more likely to argue that the arranging of the photographs in this particular imagery is within the disclosure of documentary, which produces the idea that they portray the reality of the middle class consumerism in the 1980’s in Britain. Then again Parr’s work is involved in a development of the discourse documentary where the photographer allows more of a personal, independent viewpoint throughout their image of choice. (Bull, 2010).

Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright
Many images produce meanings, however meanings of a piece of work do not are not, strictly speaking, fully interpreted in the work itself, this is where the producer of the piece of work has placed its individual elements for the viewer to uncover them. The meanings and interpretations of work are based besides the image itself and the producer of the image.

Then again, images have what we call the ‘dominant’ better known as a shared meaning. The image can also be interpreted and seen in many ways that do not adapt to its originally meaning.

However, it is important to realise that not all work of arts and media productions do not speak to all viewers the same, rather, a piece of art speaks to specific viewers who are drawn into the image when being viewed. For example, style, content, the world it builds and the issues it raises. When a viewer is interested in a photograph they say the image speaks to them, perhaps because they can relate to it or know of someone who they can relate it to. ‘Just as viewers create meaning from images, images also construct audiences.’[5]
Normally most images we view have some sort of concept behind them that their producers have tried to show throughout the image this could be a small or large aspect of the image. For example, advertisers look into audience research to ensure that the product they are advertising to sell is directly focused at the right age group or gender for the best selling point. Artists, graphic designers, filmmakers and many other people in this industry use images that the viewer will read interpret to their satisfaction. (Sturken, Cartwright, 2001).
To conclude, does the person (or people) who produce a work (image, film, artwork etc.) ultimately control its meaning and interpretation? After looking into different online and library book resources such as ‘Stephen Bull PHOTOGRAPHY’ who expresses how an individual photograph is thought about and portrayed, I have found that all the recourses I have read through have one thing in common, the theory of a viewer creates meaning from images and the image creates the audience. Even though I have mentioned throughout my essay that the producer of the work attempts to show the meaning he intends to give throughout his/her image/images the main aspect in my opinion is the viewer and their opinion of the image and how they are drawn into it, how they interpret the image and relate to it.
I believe from the research I have found that the person/people who produce the work do not have full control of the image. The producer attempts to show meaning throughout the image/images, process but how it is seen is the main element of this question.
In summary, if the producer had full control there would be no need to have a research team in all advertisement of artist, graphic design and photography industries. The producer would not need to look into his target audience or age category, he/she would just take the picture and broadcast it. However this is something that is vital throughout the photographic industry. We direct our work to a specific audience to what the images concept illustrates. Therefore, “the audience will change the images interpretation”[8].


  1. Kevin Carter. (2011). Manic Street Preachers. Available: http://www.learningfromlyrics.org/KevinCarter.html. Last accessed 09/03/2015.
  2. Kevin Carter. (2011). Manic Street Preachers. Everything must go. 7 (4), 34.
  3. Pete Williams. (1999). Rule of Thirds. Available: http://www.photographymad.com/pages/view/rule-of-thirds. Last accessed 11/03/2015.
  4. Stephen Bull (2010). PHOTOGRAPHY. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. 43.
  5. Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright. (2001). Viewers Make Meaning. In: Practices of looking. United States, New York: Oxford University Press. 45.
  6. Macleod Scott. (12 December 1994). The life and death of Kevin Carter. Available: http://content.time.com/time. Last accessed 20/03/2015.
  7. Joanne Cauciella Bonica. (10th august 2005). The ultimate in the unfair. Available: http://flatrock.org.nz/. Last accessed 20/03/2015.
  8. Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright. (2001).Practices of looking. New York: Oxford University Press. 45.

Womens Rights Are Human Rights

On 5 September 1995, Hillary Clinton, former first Lady of the United States, was invited by the Women & Health Security Colloquium, which was sponsored by the World Health Organization, to attend the Fourth U.N. World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. As the Honorary Chairperson of the United States delegation to the conference, she gave the speech, “Women’s Rights Are Human Rights” in the first few days during a special Plenary Session. In the speech, she utilized several persuasive techniques, also known as propaganda, grasping people’s attention in order to achieve support for the claim of the women’s rights she was devoted to. Propaganda is usually a speech device that people intently use to induce or intensify others’ actions and attitudes with some deluded languages. Since propaganda is deliberate, it is often looked down as an evil and offensive tool. However, sometimes it can just be used for an act of persuasion or a personal perspective. According to Cross, propaganda is an important tool and seen in everywhere surrounding our lives. It needs to be correctly analyzed and respected and it can actually work toward good causes as well as bad (p.526). -For example, by intentionally incorporating propaganda into her speech, such as appealing to people’s emotions, distracting people’s attention, and somewhat misleading people, Hillary Clinton strengthened her persuasive power for women’s rights and successfully beamed her message all over the world.

Some propaganda techniques employ pathos, the act of appealing to people’s emotions. For example, plain-folks appeal, a device where a speaker tries to win our confidence and support by appearing to be a person like ourselves, is a type of propaganda. Clinton’s speech displays this technique when she says, “We come together in fields and in factories. In village markets and supermarkets. In living rooms and board rooms.” Her words suggest that she is one of those everyday people in fields, factories, markets, living rooms, and board rooms. Clinton further expands this idea by saying, “We share a common future.” This statement suggests that because we share the same future, we are on the same level. She is telling her audience that we should listen to her points because she is one of us, and thus has similar goals and interests to us. We are effectively led to believe that we should trust her so that we can overcome our shared struggles to achieve those shared goals and that shared future. Through plain-folks appeal, she turns her audience into trusting comrades-in-arms.

She then employs the bandwagon technique in a similar manner. When she says, “That is why every woman, every man, every child, every family, and every nation on our planet has a stake in the discussion that takes place here,” she is again promoting that idea of oneness, which is the sharing of both struggles and goals. In the bandwagon technique, however, the goal is to pressure people to believe what everyone else believes and to conform, thus being faithful to the conference. There is a call to action. Clinton is telling the audience to “jump on the bandwagon,” because if one of them does not, that is the equivalent of turning away from your fellows.

In the speech, she further strengthens the credibility of her argument by appealing to other emotions, such as pity and fear. Appealing to pity is achieved by attempting to win the audience’s sympathy by giving examples of rightfully pitiable situations, in order to convince us of the conclusion or solution she will propose. One sees this technique in the statement: “As an American, I want to speak up for women in my own country – women who are raising children on the minimum wage, women who can’t afford health care or child care, women whose lives are threatened by violence, including violence in their own homes.” In that sentence, she in effect not only manages to tug on the audience’s heartstrings, but also to subtly declare herself as the honorary representative of these poor souls; then she becomes the voice of the voiceless and oppressed.

At the same time, it is also hard not to notice how Clinton makes the use of “appeal to fear,” a persuasion technique that implicitly threatens the audience and like the previous examples of pathos-based argument, uses emotions rather than reasons to persuade. Clinton displays this technique in her speech by saying, “As long as discrimination and inequities remain so commonplace around the world – as long as girls and women are valued less, fed less, fed last, overworked, underpaid, not schooled and subjected to violence in and out of their homes – the potential of the human family to create a peaceful, prosperous world will not be realized.” Here, she is basically saying that people feel pity for those disenfranchised individuals she gives as an example, but if we continue to do nothing, their situations will deteriorate further and worst of all, such situations may affect them as well, in their own family and in their own home.

Of course, the point of stirring her audience to such extents is to pursue a specific ideal, sometimes even a certain agenda. In the speech, however, she does not specify what exact action she wants her audience to take, and yet the call to action is almost palpable. Clinton achieves this by distracting her audience’s attention. In particular, she uses transfer-glory by association in this case-a propaganda technique wherein the speaker attempts to transfer our good feelings about one thing, towards their viewpoints. She makes her audience aware that her goal is the improvement of women’s lives, “What we are learning around the world is that if women are healthy and educated, their families will flourish. If women are free from violence, their families will flourish. If women have a chance to work and earn as full and equal partners in society, their families will flourish.” However, as we can see, she is careful not to exclude anyone from appreciating her viewpoints. In fact, she suggests that by joining her cause, people would actually be helping themselves. Clinton even broadens the scope of these purported benefits when she says, “And when families flourish, communities and nations will flourish.” Thus, by helping women, we are actually helping the entire world.

It is an altruistic enough message in all respects. To cement such a message, however, we will notice that the speech is also littered with attempts to mislead the audience as well. For example, when she states, “Women are the primary caretakers for most of the world’s children and elderly,” she is making a hasty generalization in fact. As Cooper shown, “A hasty generalization is a conclusion based on a sample that is too small or in some other way unrepresentative of the larger population.” (p.152) Such a statement supports her overall argument and it might also be true in certain cases; however, she misleads her audience by stating it as a fact without stating a basis that men can also be the primary caretakers for children and seniors.

Clinton’s use of another technique in her speech, stroking (Argumentum ad populum), gains my admiration. First, she presents an opposing view to her points when she states, “There are some who wonder whether the lives of women and girls matter to economic and political progress around the globe.” By suggesting that some people think it is not necessary to care about women’s rights simply just because they think women are less useful in the field of economy and politics, she raises indignation. However, it is misleading in that it creates an opponent, an unspecified “they,” that may or may not exist. Thus, the argument becomes whether what “they” said is true or not, and not the possibility that no one truly said those instigating statements. Clinton then assures the indignant audience that there are many women who are just as successful as men in professions with high emolument in fact, stating: “Let them look at the women gathered here and at Huairou – the homemakers, nurses, teachers, lawyers, policymakers, and women who run their own businesses.” She manages to present both argument and counterargument without specifying who the enemy is supposed to be and uses stroking that makes us feel we as women are very important to the society.

Another technique that Clinton uses to mislead her audience to cement her message is card-stacking. Card-stacking is the technique which tells us the fact that is true but still not the entirely true in order to prevent us from being aware of some other important facts. For example, Clinton employs this technique when she states, “If there is one message that echoes forth from this conference, let it be that human rights are women’s rights – and women’s rights are human rights, once and for all.” While it is true that women’s rights are a part of human rights, human rights are not specific to just “all women,” they encompass the rights of both genders. Here, Clinton uses the card-stacking to mislead us, in order to perk up the importance of women’s rights. Near the end, she uses card-stacking again when she says, “Families rely on mothers and wives for emotional support and care; families rely on women for labor in the home; and increasingly, families rely on women for income needed to raise healthy children and care for other relatives.” Considering the very diverse memberships, values, and situations of any set of real families, this generalization is not necessarily true; thus, she subtly misleads her audience again.

Throughout the history, propaganda is often used by government or politics or advertiser to affect people’s attitude and consequently alter people’s decisions to become the follower of the point of the political party or become the consumer of the company involuntarily. However, the intention of Clinton’s speech is completely different. It does not have to damage an opposition’s credit as in some candidates’ speech, and neither induces people to purchase something actually unnecessary in their lives as in some ads. It is about delivering a great message for her audience regarding the significance of public women welfare. Propaganda can be used in good manners as well as bad manners. By promoting the propaganda in the positive way, Clinton successfully increased my perception of the importance of women’s rights and made me want to follow her idea as long as she dedicates for this claim.

Personal Journey Into Medicine

”The presence of the doctor is the beginning of a cure”-goes the proverb. It is something I firmly believe in. The art of healing patients begin at the moment the patient sees the doctor, not only when the medicine is prescribed. The practice of medicine is a combination of knowledge, compassion and love for the people we treat and fellow human beings in general. That’s the combination of medicine that will treat the patient as a whole and uphold the WHO definition of health:

” Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”

Since childhood, the idea of treating people has inspired me. The house next door to where we live was given for rent and most of the time, doctors used to occupy it. They used to see patients at home as well. During the summer school vacation time I used to stay with the doctors during their working hours at home. I had the opportunity to see them interact with patients, provide them comfort and give them medicines. The patients used to return for follow up and thank the doctors for the help and care they had provided. I could see the gratitude expressed clearly in the patient’s eyes and even though I was a child and a mere spectator of the whole process, my mind was able to comprehend how well a doctor can change another person’s life for the good. The interest in the profession took its initial roots from there. When I was 12 years old there was an incident that further strengthened the interest for Medicine within me. One night my best friend’s dad collapsed, the doctor next door administered CPR and he was taken to the nearby hospital immediately. Further we came to know that my friend’s dad had suffered from a myocardial infarction popularly known as ‘heart attack’. I was intrigued by this and wanted to know exactly what it was and the doctor explained it to me in a way comprehensible for a child of my age. The working of the heart fascinated me. The intricate way in which our organs work; how a doctor can change another person’s life with timely action; all these intensified my interest in Medicine during my childhood days itself.

When I was a child, my parents left me with my grandparents. My parents had difficulty to take care of me in their hectic work schedule. Even though my grandparents looked after me in the best way possible, I always missed my parents. I used to feel a lack of love always, maybe from the absence of my parent’s proximity. Somehow I resolved in my sub conscious mind that nobody else should suffer from the absence of care. This decision had a tremendous effect in my life when I entered Medical School. I always used to feel that all the patients whom I used to come into contact with as one of my own relative.. My senior doctors wanted to know as to how I became like this and traced it back to my childhood. Now I believe everything that happens to us has a good effect in our lives sooner or later.

My interest in Internal Medicine started growing in the early years of Medical School. When the clinics started in the second year, I found myself drawn towards the Internal Medicine ward more than any other specialty. There were a variety of cases, and at times a specific disease will manifest with varied presentations. Puzzling diagnostic problems which would fall into place with a specific examination finding. All of us are made unique and hence, though two patients may share the same disease process, two treatment plans can not be the same. The doctors who taught us were veterans in their respective fields and instilled within us great interest and love for the vast subject. At times I would think in awe that Medicine is wonderful, vast and challenging. Every day the senior doctors used to have case discussions of patients in entirety starting from diagnosis and treatment of illness to offering support and counseling. The medical students were also asked to actively participate in such group discussions and ask all our doubts. During my student period I always made sure to see as many Internal Medicine cases as possible, the wide variety of cases always enthralled me and the different physiological systems acting with each other paves the way to list a variety of differential diagnoses as well. Our medical school was always conducting seminars and conferences of which the internal medicine department took a great interest to participate. I had the fortune to participate in state conferences as well. Each day a week, the hospital used to conduct a meeting which included the entire departments and hospital staff discussing the rare and interesting cases they have encountered; this was a good experience and played a role in deepening my passion for the subject of internal medicine. Our professors in internal medicine used to conduct seminars on ”what not to do in Medical Practice” as well, exposing to us the pitfalls they had in their life and how to be cautious against them. Another thing I found interesting about Internal Medicine is that we can take care of all the patient population. There is no restriction to any age group or gender.

In my third year of medical school, we had postings in a community health center. When I was working there, I came across a patient, he was a fisherman, and he had come for refill of medication for his hypertension. The doctor in charge asked me to examine him. Examination of his system showed Mitral Regurgitation. The doctor in charge asked me to write him a referral letter to the local hospital for further evaluation including ECHO and stating that his financial condition is poor. Weeks later I saw him in our medical school, he was referred to our institution for surgery, while I was speaking to him-he took out the old referral letter which I wrote from his pocket and thanked me for helping him out. He even called up my parents to tell them that I helped him. Though I couldn’t be directly involved in the treatment aspect, the way in which the patient expressed his gratitude touched me a lot and made me thinking that how much good we can do for people and improve the quality of their lives.

During my internship period the idea of treating the patient as a whole and not only the disease process itself took a firm grip in my mind. As much as we treat and cure patients, I understood that counseling them and giving advices on the preventive aspects of diseases is of paramount importance as well. In India the disease like Malaria,Dengue,Cholera,Tuberculosis,Chikungunya-just to name a few, are rampant. Such diseases can be easily avoided with proper counseling and for that good communication skills are required. These are skills, I understood, that we gain with experience and no text book advice can help us with it. We can always treat the disease, but I think it is more important to isolate the main cause of the same and eliminate it from the scene. For example- doctors treat childhood asthma, the root cause of the same might be due to passive smoking from a close family member; if we just spend a few minutes in delving more deep into the patient history we will be able to isolate the main cause and prevent the child’s future attacks of asthma and with good communication skills to stop the family member from smoking and protect his/her health as well. The importance of rehabilitating a patient is another important thing which I found during internship period. In some cases, the patient is treated and some unavoidable residual problem may persist. The patient may not be able to go back to work, if so, what to do next? In this aspect I found the meaning of rehabilitation-something I read many times in the textbook and regurgitated into the exam answer papers in a new and different light. It is again important to make the patient aware of support groups and help them find a livelihood which is suited for their present health condition. As an intern I saw that internal medicine doctors as primary care physicians doing this more than any other specialty the – treating the patient as a whole and concentrating on the preventive aspect as well. This augmented the my love for internal medicine and made me aware of the fact that an internal medicine doctor is a unique combination of extensive knowledge, sharp diagnostic and treatment abilities; with humanistic qualities of empathy, compassion and integrity.

I have always felt a particular liking and empathy for AIDS patients because they are always socially discriminated and the stigma surrounding AIDS even in this 21st century also is to such an extent that a diagnosis of AIDS means social death. During my internship period I saw many HIV positive patients. As tuberculosis and HIV go hand in hand, I saw many patients being treated for extended period of time and our consultants helped them through their ups and downs. Once again I was enlightened to the fact that humanistic qualities are important in a doctor treating patients with such a chronic disease surrounded by social stigma. As a part of our posting in internal medicine department three of us were sent to work in an AIDS hospice. The learning experience there was beyond any textbook knowledge that we garnered over the years and the summation of the time I spent there has helped become a better doctor and a better person I am today. There was a total change in the outlook I had for this chronic illness. The interest in this disease which presents in various ways with a large number of associated opportunistic infections , gave me the idea of making an ‘AIDS Man’-a full blown poster of a man with AIDS with all the possible opportunistic infections. This was effectively used in several health education campaigns we conducted from our Medical School.

I have always believed that doctors should not be anyone’s judge-don’t think as to how this person got this disease. A patient should always be treated with the same care and compassion, no matter what the disease is or how he/she contracted it.

The medical school I studied in is a charitable institution as well, catering to the needs of underprivileged sections of the society, so I was always close to the cradle of the basic human needs and emotions. I was a part of numerous camps that our Internal Medicine department had conducted which encompassed giving free medications and further follow up in our hospital; by doing this we were able to reach our medical care to all the sections of society, notably the tribal population in our state. The health condition is the tribal areas were far worse than I had imagined-poor sanitation facilities, malnourished children, symptomatic but un-discovered cardiac problems in children and adults alike, various forms of oral cancers, pregnant women not seeking medical care, high maternal and infant mortality rate, neonatal tetanus and so on. With our constant individual counseling, health education sessions and poster campaigns we were able to instill the importance of medical care in their minds. A primary health center was established in the tribal area in which I had the opportunity to participate and slowly, but steadily we were able to gain the trust of the local people there and provide health care for the community thereby improving the quality of their lives. It was during the internship period that I found there is a teacher inside me. I had the opportunity to go to different schools and communities to give health education classes on substance abuse, STDs and so on. I found the art of providing health education and interacting with various people from all walks of the society a fulfilling experience.

To speak to patients and families when they are helpless the most, is a challenge that the medicine has provided. We all know that people become vulnerable when they are sick. To help people take decision regarding the different treatment modalities: which is best for which patient, to have help people take end of life decision, comfort the immediate relatives and ease the passing of terminally ill patients, to hold their hands and comfort them, to wipe a tear from their eyes and an occasional hug for an old patient who has been abandoned by her children and tell her that we are all here to take care of you, has all given me a certain amount of satisfaction. My interpersonal and communication skills were polished and developed during this period of time. I was able to establish a good relationship with many patients who were under our care during internship. They all touched my life as much as I was able to touch theirs.

Internal Medicine is a dynamic branch as the internal medicine doctor not only treats the disease, but the patient as a whole. I want to achieve better training as a doctor; make meaningful contributions to the society and I believe that research opportunities are one of the best to achieve that goal. The internal medicine residency program will foster my interest in academics, offer the best clinical training and provide research opportunities. I would like to nurture the ‘teacher’ within me through patient education and involvement in student training. My personal reason for liking internal medicine is that it uniquely combines hard work, service, compassion, empathy and strong communication skills. In addition to the traditional education, a physician studying abroad will obtain a general global perspective on various health issues and hence encourage broad mindedness. I expect a challenging environment in which to practice and learn the enormous volume and life experiences that encompass internal medicine. I am sure that Internal Medicine residency will be a fulfilling experience helping me to develop a strong foundation for the future years in this field.

Microsoft Corporation

Microsoft Corporation is a United States-based multinational computer technology corporation that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of software products for computing devices. Headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA, its most profitable products are the Microsoft Windows operating system and the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software.


Internal environment


* Our mission is to enable people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full potential.

Finacial resources (March 31, 2009, In millions)

* Asset $ 68853

* Liabilities $ 23823

* Stockholders equity $ 36943

* We generate revenue by developing, manufacturing, licensing, and supporting a wide range of software products and services for many different types of computing devices.


* As of June 30, 2008, we employed approximately 91,000 people on a full-time basis, 55,000 in the United States and 36,000 internationally. Of the total, 35,000 were in product research and development, 26,000 in sales and marketing, 17,000 in product support and consulting services, 4,000 in manufacturing and distribution, and 9,000 in general and administration.

External environment

Market environment

* Our customers include individual consumers, small and medium-sized organizations, enterprises, governmental institutions, educational institutions, Internet service providers, application developers, and OEMs.


* We have five operating segments: Client, Server and Tools, Online Services Business, Microsoft Business Division, and Entertainment and Devices Division.

* Client: Competing commercial software products, including variants of Unix, are supplied by competitors such as Apple, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Sun Microsystems.

* Server and Tools: Our server operating system products face intense competition from a wide variety of server operating systems and server applications, offered by companies with a variety of market approaches.

* Online Services Business: OSB competes with AOL, Google, Yahoo!, and a wide array of Web sites and portals that provide content and online offerings of all types to end users.

* Microsoft Business Division: Competitors to the Microsoft Office system include many software application vendors such as Apple, Corel, Google, IBM, Novell, Oracle, Red Hat, Sun Microsystems, and local application developers in Europe and Asia. IBM (Smartsuite) and Corel (WordPerfect Suite) have measurable installed bases with their office productivity products.

* Entertainment and Devices Division: Our Xbox hardware business competes with console platforms from Nintendo and Sony, both of which have a large, established base of customers.


* We distribute our products primarily through the following channels: OEM; distributors and resellers; and online.

* OEM: Our operating systems are licensed primarily to OEMs(original equipment manufacturers) under agreements that grant OEMs the right to build computing devices based on our operating systems, principally PCs. Under similar arrangements, we also market and license certain server operating systems, desktop applications, hardware devices, and consumer software products to OEMs. We have OEM agreements covering one or more of our products with virtually all of the major PC OEMs, including Acer, Dell, Fujitsu, Fujitsu Siemens Computers, Gateway, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo, NEC, Samsung, Sony, and Toshiba.

* Distributors and resellers: We license software to organizations under arrangements that allow the end-user customer to acquire multiple licenses of products.

* Online: We distribute online content and services through Live Search, Windows Live, Office Live, our MSN portals and channels, the Microssoft Online Services platform, which includes offerings for business, and other online channels.

* Consumers and small- and medium-sized organizations obtain our products primarily through resellers and OEMs.


1. Collaborating with Industry and Law Enforcement

Microsoft Corporation actively pursues cybercriminals through vigorous civil enforcement in the United States and it works in partnership with law enforcement agencies worldwide to deter cybercrime and bring criminals to justice. Since 2003, Microsoft has supported more than 550 enforcement actions worldwide against spammers, phishers, and distributors of spyware and other malicious code. Microsoft has also engaged with the Federal Trade Commission and attorneys general in California, Florida, Massachusetts, Texas, and Washington State, to investigate and pursue cybercriminals.

Microsoft works to ensure that governments and law enforcement agencies receive the appropriate tools, necessary training, and extensive technical and investigative support to assist in their efforts to combat global cybercrime and work to make the Internet a safer place for everyone.

Training. Microsoft is deeply committed to assisting law enforcement with the identification, location, and prosecution of online fraudsters.

* Microsoft has worked with the attorneys general in Alabama, Colorado, Georgia, Kansas, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, South Carolina, and Utah State to provide comprehensive training about Internet investigations to law enforcement officials.

* Microsoft hosted LE Tech 2006 (October 2006 in Redmond, Washington), a conference to introduce law enforcement officials to new Microsoft software and services that will affect cybercrime investigations over the next few years.

Tools and technical support for investigations. Microsoft supports law enforcement agencies around the world with advanced investigative technology to address cyber threats.

* In France, Microsoft participates in Signal Spam a platform (created with public and private sector entities) through which Internet users can report suspected spam. Data that is collected through Signal Spam is shared with Internet service providers (ISPs) and French law enforcement authorities to assist in antispam investigations and prosecutions. In the first ten days after the program’s launch, users reported nearly 300,000 instances of spam.

* In August 2006, Microsoft launched the Law Enforcement Portal, a secure, centralized resource that provides law enforcement with access to Internet crime-related information as well as tools, training, and technical support to assist in investigations.

Anti-phishing efforts. Microsoft is dedicated to stopping phishers and works in alliance with groups to implement anti-phishing measures worldwide.

* Microsoft is the founding member of Digital PhishNet (DPN), which fosters cooperation among industry and law enforcement agencies to share information, provide training, and educate consumers about phishing sites. Microsoft encourages worldwide participation in DPN by Internet service providers, online auctions, financial institutions, and law enforcement agencies.

* Microsoft acts with the Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) and the Authentication and Online Trust Alliance (AOTA) to promote good public anti-phishing policies and best practices for enforcement of those policies.

* In March 2006, Microsoft launched the Global Phishing Enforcement Initiative (GPEI), a worldwide consumer protection campaign in which industry and law enforcement joined forces to combat phishers. The GPEI works to protect the public from fraudulent sites and provides worldwide investigative support to help prosecute phishers.

Antispam efforts. Microsoft supports law enforcement with cutting-edge technical and investigative techniques developed specifically to address cyberthreats. To that end, the company has provided technical support to governments around the globe, including in the United States, Europe, Asia, and South America.

* Microsoft has been a leader in promoting SpotSpam, a project co-funded by the European Commission, which aims to limit the spread of spam. The project seeks to establish antispam hotlines in France, Germany, and Poland.

* Microsoft also participates in Signal Spam. Created with public and private sector entities, Signal Spam provides a platform through which Internet users can report suspected spam.

2. Promoting a Safer Internet Experience for Children

Child Exploitation Tracking System. Microsoft worked closely with Canadian police and international law enforcement agencies to develop Child Exploitation Tracking System (CETS), a unique software tool that enables investigators to store, search, share, and analyze large volumes of evidence and to share that evidence with other police agencies. Following its development in Canada, CETS has been implemented in Brazil, Chile, Indonesia, Italy, and the United Kingdom; Colombia and Spain have announced their intent to adopt it. Microsoft continues to promote CETS to governments and law enforcement agencies throughout the world.

Global Campaign Against Child Pornography. Microsoft joined with Interpol and the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (ICMEC) in 2004 to initiate this campaign. Since then, Microsoft has worked with ICMEC and Interpol to help provide training for law enforcement personnel about computer-facilitated crimes against children. As of October 2007, more than 2,400 law enforcement officers from 106 countries have received training to help them identify suspects, investigate offenses, and deal with victims of online child abuse.

3. Supporting Important Legislation

Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime. Microsoft has joined industry partners to encourage countries to adopt and ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime. This global legal tool requires signatory countries to adopt and update laws and procedures to address online crime. Microsoft also provides technical assistance and consultation to help countries comply with their obligations under the convention.

Model legislation. In April 2006, Microsoft joined ICMEC in announcing its model legislation, which seeks to modernize child pornography laws for the 184 member countries of Interpol. Microsoft has pledged to support worldwide efforts to develop and enforce these laws.

4. Successes in the Fight Against Cybercrime

Operation Bot Roast. Microsoft provided technical information and analytical support to aid the FBI in Operation Bot Roast. Announced in June 2007, Operation Bot Roast is an ongoing investigation and operation that aims to disrupt and dismantle botnets.

Lawsuit against Bizads UK. In December 2006, the English High Court ruled in favor of Microsoft in a lawsuit against Bizads UK, which had fraudulently sold lists of up to 10,000 e-mail addresses at a time to spammers. The court restricted Bizads UK from further spam-related activities and awarded damages to be assessed later.

129 legal actions against phishers. In November 2006, Microsoft took action against phishers who were targeting users of MSN Hotmail. These legal actions included 97 criminal complaints and three civil settlements in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

Anti-spam prosecution in Australia. In October 2006, Clarity1 Pty Ltd. became the first company convicted under Australia’s tough new anti-spam laws and was fined more than US$4 million for sending hundreds of millions of junk e-mail messages. Microsoft supported this historic prosecution by providing evidence of e-mail messages received by spam-trap accounts to the antispam investigators at the Australian Communications and Media Authority in 2005.

Anti-spyware lawsuits. In January 2006, Microsoft and the attorney general of Washington State filed parallel anti-spyware lawsuits. This action was the state’s first legal action under the Washington Computer Spyware Act, which was enacted in 2005. Microsoft filed its own lawsuit that alleged violation of the same law.

Arrests for financial fraud and identity theft. In January 2006, Bulgarian law enforcement officials arrested eight people who were involved in an international criminal network that was responsible for online financial fraud and personal data theft. Microsoft provided Bulgarian officials with information that helped in the investigation and subsequent identification of the alleged perpetrators.

Settlement with “Spam King.” In August 2005, Microsoft reached a US$7 million settlement against self-proclaimed “Spam King” Scott Richter and his Colorado-based company, OptInRealBig.com LLC. Microsoft began the suit in December 2003, in conjunction with a parallel action by the New York State attorney general.

Arrests of Mytob and Zotob worm authors. In August 2005, Microsoft provided United States and worldwide law enforcement agencies with investigative and technical support that led to the arrest of the individuals suspected of authoring and distributing the Mytob and Zotob worms. Turkish and Moroccan law enforcement agencies made the arrests fewer than two weeks after the Mytob and Zotob worms were unleashed.



Microsoft has an innovative corporate culture and a strong product development focus that is designed to keep us on the leading edge of the industry. We believe that our employees are the company’s most important asset. They are the source of our creative ingenuity and success so we empower each staff member to take initiative in solving problems, coming up with new ideas and improving the organisation.

Microsoft values diversity and respects each person’s individuality

When you sell software to 180 million people, in 70 countries, speaking 150 languages, you can’t afford to have a singular point of view. Microsoft employs people from many nationalities and backgrounds.

* Who we looking for

Great people with great values

Microsoft concentrates on hiring people we believe fit into the company culture: people who are driven to succeed, enthusiastic about how they can contribute to the organisation and unafraid of suggesting and implementing new ideas. Our recruits are not always IT professionals; many come from backgrounds such as the banking, law or pharmaceutical industries. What they bring to Microsoft is a diversity of knowledge and understanding of the needs of particular industries that helps them relate to, and provide optimum service to, our customers.

Microsoft needs people who are creative, energetic and bright, absolutely passionate and committed to our mission of helping others realise their potential. These people share the following values:

* Passion for customers, partners and technology;

* Integrity and honesty;

* Open and respectful with others and dedicated to making them better;

* Willingness to take on big challenges and see them through;

* Committed to personal excellence and self-improvement; and

* Accountable for commitments, results and quality to customers, shareholders, partners and employees.

This creates a workforce with a broad range of skills and expertise. We also encourage and nurture lateral thinking. Our workers are given a high level of autonomy to come up with and offer innovative solutions. If this is important to you, it is highly likely you will enjoy the environment Microsoft offers it¡¯s employees. A place where you can get things done and have fun at work!

* Diversity

Microsoft values diversity and respects each person’s individuality

At Microsoft we have made a corporate commitment to the principle of diversity. We believe that diversity enriches our performance and our products, the communities in which we live and work, and the lives of our employees. As our workforce evolves to reflect the growing diversity of our communities and global marketplace, our efforts to understand, value and incorporate differences become increasingly important.

We have established a number of initiatives to promote diversity within our own organisation, including education and training programs that provide employees with the awareness, skills, knowledge and ability to embrace differences. The programs also communicate the importance of a respectful work environment in maximising the performance of every employee. Microsoft employs a diverse workforce representing a broad range of cultural, linguistic, socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds including disabled employees and people from all corners of the globe.

We are proudly an equal opportunity employer.

* Community Spirit


At Microsoft, we share a passion for technology and what it can do for people. It doesn’t matter who you are or where you live, technology can make a positive difference in your life. It can help you learn faster, achieve more, simplify your life and have more fun. Technology has helped children and adults acquire a passion for learning, given businesses of all sizes the tools they need to compete in an ever-changing marketplace, and provided people with disabilities the access to a new world of job and life opportunities. And we believe the best is yet to come.


Amazing things can happen when the right people, tools and resources come together. At Microsoft, our employees and our technology help unlock this kind of potential every day, through our corporate giving program and through donations of personal time and resources by our employees. Since 1983, Microsoft and our employees around the world have donated more than $100 million in cash, $100 million in software and thousands of volunteer hours in our communities around the world. Across our Asia, each Microsoft subsidiary has its own local initiatives for social giving and community outreach. Our employees are passionately involved in many charitable initiatives across Asia that help people realize their potential. To learn more about Microsoft¡¯s giving campaigns you can follow this link: International – www.microsoft.com/giving (US link)

* Work/Life Balance


Our employees are our most valued asset, and in recognition of this, Microsoft provides flexible programs, resources and tools to help them create their own kind of balance in life. In this hectic industry, careers are demanding, but if your work is to be fun and rewarding it must take its place and priority alongside your other life interests. At Microsoft, we aim to make the workplace as flexible as possible to enable our employees to have freedom, balance and autonomy.

The work/life balance initiatives and programs offered to our staff throughout Asia differ depending upon location, local laws and resource availability. Some of the benefits provided to staff in different locations include:

* Onsite and online parenting resources

* Variety of sports and health benefits

* Broadband connection to your home (enabling staff to work from home when required)

* Job-share (where role permits)

* Microsoft counselling service for employees and their families

* Social club

* Career guidance and planning

* Mentoring program

* Employer-sponsored discount program

* Laptop computers and mobile technology

* Community support initiatives for various charities

The programs cover the individual employee, work, family and community. In addition to the specific work/life balance programs available, Microsoft is firmly committed to the goal of creating a healthy, flexible, and productive work environment that allows employees to engage in a challenging career while balancing their work/life needs. For more information about what programs of this nature are offered in individual countries across Asia, please contact a member of our Recruitment team today.

* Women in IT


Microsoft is proudly an equal opportunity employer of women and proactively seeks to ensure our workforce embraces excellence in gender diversity. Microsoft works closely with local government agencies across Asia and other recognized employers of choice so as to ensure we are constantly contributing to the improved status and treatment of women in the IT industry. This ensures our organisation is compliant with the latest legislative requirements and aware of best practices in the industry for women.

Microsoft annually reviews its female diversity practices relating to:

* Recruitment and selection

* Promotions, transfers and terminations

* Training and development

* Work organisation

* Conditions of service

* Dealing with sex-based harassment

* Dealing with pregnant and potentially pregnant employees and employees who are breastfeeding

At Microsoft male and female employees are paid and rewarded on the same measurements based on the role and the merit of performance. There is no distinction based on gender. Furthermore, there is no distinction based on gender with regards to Microsoft’s recruitment processes, promotions and transfers, eligibility for benefits, training or conditions of service.

Growing the female ranks in the IT industry

As a thought-leader in the IT industry Microsoft is committed to the ongoing development of female professionals and encouraging new professionals to the industry. We are actively involved in a number of industry networking groups that focus on Women in the IT industry so we can ensure that our female employees have a voice on important issues and that we continue to develop and attract great female talent to the company. Annually, Microsoft supports and actively participates in the Global Womens Forum and across Asia our subsidiaries have internal networking and support groups for our female employees. Microsoft is also proud to support the development of females in the graduate community by offering Internship placements and various programs to improve the skills of emerging female technologists.

Mothers at Microsoft

Microsoft welcomes the applications from female candidates who are pregnant, planning pregnancy or returning to the workforce following a maternity leave absence. This is a family friendly environment, so don¡¯t be surprised if you visit our offices and meet a few little people! Our employees often bring their children in for a visit to work or to participate in family day events.


Microsoft has a zero-tolerance policy for Sex-Based Harassment and strong policies in place to encourage the equal and appropriate conduct of all employees.

* Parents in the Workforce

Microsoft enjoys a family friendly environment so it is not uncommon to see spouses and children dropping by for lunch onsite.

Microsoft supports parents in the workforce and those returning to the workforce. We do have a Parental Leave policy in place for the primary carer of children and your Recruiter can provide you with further details. If you need time away from work to celebrate the birth of your child and provide care, Microsoft supports you and your right to return to fulltime employment when you are ready. Local Labour Laws apply.

Our families are the most important priority in life. Microsoft supports Parents in the Workforce by having flexible and convenient programs in place to ensure you can have balance between your family and your career. Just some of these benefits include:

* Parental leave

* Parents at Microsoft online resource

* Microsoft counselling service for you and your family

* Broadband program to enable you to work from home when necessary

* Laptops and mobile technology

* Discounted software program for private purchase

* Flexibility to consider job-share where position enables

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a series of birth defects such as physical, mental, behavioral and learning problems caused by the mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Kenneth Jones and David Smith at the University of Washington in Seattle officially identified Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in 1973 (Golden 1). The exact reasons certain fetuses are affected and others are not, is not fully understood. CDC reports state that 0.2 to 1.5 per 1000 babies are born each year in the United States with alcohol related birth defects (CDC 1).

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can be prevented with education. Even small changes in education and behavior can reduce the risk of women giving birth to babies with fetal alcohol syndrome. Women have been drinking for years not knowing or understanding the effects that alcohol had on their babies. Some women that drink do not even know they are pregnant and may unknowingly and unintentionally cause damage to the unborn and developing baby. Then there are the women that are addicted to alcohol. The drive can be stronger for the alcohol than for the health of herself or her unborn baby. Education, behavior modification and detoxification are areas of change needed to help with prevention of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

When alcohol is consumed it is absorbed into the mother’s bloodstream and passed through the placenta and into the central nervous system of the fetus. Alcohol depresses the central nervous system of the fetus. Alcohol is a potent teratogen. A teratogen is any substance which has been proven to cause birth defects. It is not fully known if it is the alcohol or acetaldehyde, which is a breakdown product from alcohol, which causes birth defects. How the damage occurs is not completely understood, but alcohol does create a glucose and oxygen deficit for the fetus (Spong 1).

There is increased risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth defects in women that drink, especially in the first trimester. Also, the amount of alcohol intake can multiply the chances of these effects. The organs of the fetus begin developing between three to ten weeks. Alcohol may affect the developing organs such as the heart, brain and central nervous system. Because of the effect on the brain, alcohol can cause mental retardation. Damage to the brain can happen anytime during the pregnancy since the brain develops for all nine months and beyond birth (Belfort 2006).

The effects of the alcohol can vary in range of severity and parts of the anantomy. Some babies are born with growth deficiencies due to the alcohol consumption during pregnancy. They are short in length, under weight, and have small heads (Wong). Facial abnormalities include small eye openings, drooping eyelids, skin folds across the inner corners of the eyes, a flattened or missing bridge of the nose, underdeveloped philtrum, thin upper lip, cleft lip, and cleft palate (Wong). There are major organ defects, especially of the heart such as septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, and patent ductus arteriosus (Wong). They may have problems with their respiratory system such as apnea, pulmonary hypertension and SIDS. Renal abnormalities include aplastic, dysplastic, hypoplastic kidneys, horseshoe kidneys, ureteral duplications, and hydronephrosis (Wong 844). They may have joint and limb abnormalities. Some of the skeletal abnormalities are restriction of movement, altered palmar crease patterns, hypoplastic nails, shortened digits, radionulnar synostosis, flexion contractures, pectus excavaum and carinatum, Klippei-Feil syndrome, hemivertebrae, and scoliosis (Fry-Johnson 42) . Malformation of the Eustachian tube, conductive hearing loss and nuerosensory hearing loss are some auditory defects. They tend to have chronic ear infections. They have a tendency to be more susceptible to infections (Wong 844).

Malnutrition is a risk factor for women that drink and can lead to birth defects. Malnutrition can cause low birth weight, growth retardation, fetal damage, and is an increased risk for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. There are several reasons for the malnutrition. First, alcoholics prefer alcohol over food therefore the intake of needed nutrients is poor. Then there is reduce absorption and metabolism of nutrients.

Women that drink can be deficient in many vitamins and minerals such as vitamin B6, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin K, iron, magnesium and zinc. Deficiency in vitamin B6 can result in a clubfoot, cleft lip and palate. Folate acid deficiencies are related to neural tube defects and orofacial defects. Riboflavin deficiency may affect failure to grow, thrive and develop. Lack of thiamine has been found to cause heart defects. Deformities related to vitamin K deficiency are shortened fingers, cupped ears, flat nasal bridges, and underdeveloped nose, mouth and mid face. Babies that are born iron deficient are often smaller and shorter. Deficiency in zinc has been linked to impaired growth and development. Zinc deficiency has been related to lower immunity in infants and abnormalities of the nervous system that lead to learning difficulties and mental retardation (Anderson 3).

According to an article by Mary J. O’Connor in the American Journal of Drug and Alcohol abuse, children with fetal alcohol syndrome may show cognitive and attention deficits, increased activity levels, problems in inhibition and state regulation, perseverative behavior, and expressive language and motor problems. These problems may last into and throughout adulthood. They may have difficulties such as bonding in infants and depression in 4-6 year olds. There have been reports of depression, anxiety, psychosis, somatic complaints, delinquency, hyperactivity and sleep disorders. O’Connor also reports in a study done on 473 people that were prenatally exposed to alcohol 44% were diagnosed with major depressive disorder, 40% had psychotic disorders, and 20% had bipolar disorders(Women’s Health1). Studies on prenatal alcohol exposure and relation to IQ show varying severities. It was noted that some children for unknown reasons are more susceptible than others to the effects of alcohol. An article in Journal of School Health by Jennifer H. Green reports on a review of studies done showing an average IQ for people with fetal alcohol syndrome at 65.73 with a range of 20-120 (Green 1).

Fetal alcohol syndrome is a preventable problem. The public needs to be educated on the effects alcohol can have on an unborn child and that no amount of alcohol is safe during pregnancy. The effects from alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can range in severity and last a lifetime. Healthcare worker must educate and advise all females within childbearing years of the potential harm to the fetus. During pregnancy it is never too late to stop and reduce the risk to the fetus. Ultimately it is up to the mother to follow through with these warnings and advice.

Work Citied

Anderson, Mark. Historical Perspective Prenatal Nutrition and Birth Defects. Selen River Press, 2008. World Wide Web. July 24, 2008.

Belfort, Mandy. Department of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA. , Healthline Pregnancy Guide, February 2006

World Wide Web : July 26, 2008.

Center for Diease Control and Prevention.(2006) Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. World Wide Web: July 24, 2008.http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fas/fasask.htm#how

Fry-Johnson, Yvonne W. M.D.(2005). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome “It’s a Faith Walk…” World Wide Web: July 25, 2008.

Golden, Janet. 2005. Message in a Bottle The Making of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Green, Jennifer H. “Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: understanding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and supporting students.”Journal of School Health77.3 (March 2007): 103(6).General OneFile. Gale. BREVARD COUNTY LIBRARY SYSTEM. 24 July 2008

Prenatal alcohol exposure has effects far beyond fetal alcohol syndrome.”Women’s Health Weekly(Dec 9, 2004): 75.General OneFile. Gale. BREVARD COUNTY LIBRARY SYSTEM. 24 July 2008

Work Citied

Spong CY (2006) Protection against Prenatal Alcohol-Induced Damage. PLoS Med 3(4): e196 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030196

Wong, Donna L., Hockenberry, Marilyn J., Perry, Shannon E., and Lowdermilk, Deitra Leonard. (2006). Maternal Child Nursing Care (3rd edition). St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.

What Is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. Diabetes mellitus is where the body cells cannot use glucose properly for lack of or resistance to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Diabetes can lead to serious complications over time if left untreated. The high blood sugar levels from uncontrolled diabetes can cause serious long-term diabetic complications. Eventually, they damage the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, reducing insulin output.

Type 2 diabetes is also known as the non-insulin dependent diabetes and is the most commonly found type of diabetes in the world. Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong chronic disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy. Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes tend not to respond effectively to insulin and their fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin either, which is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar is not able to get into these cells to be stored for energy. And when sugar cannot enter the cells, high levels of sugar build up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can’t use insulin properly.

Type 2 diabetes usually occurs slowly over time and most people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at first or it may even take years. Some early symptoms of diabetes may include; bladder, kidney, skin, or other infections those that are more frequent or heal slowly. You may experience some fatigue, hunger, and increased of thirst. Other important symptoms like increased urination, blurred vision, erectile dysfunction, and pain or numbness in the feet or hands. A hormone produced by the pancreas called insulin helps sugar in our blood get into the cells of our bodies.

There are several tests that can be done in order to confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The doctor can order a fasting plasma glucose test or casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. They can also use the oral glucose tolerance test, for this test you have to fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you have to drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next several hours.

Routine screening for type 2 diabetes is normally recommended at the age 45, especially if you are overweight. If the results are normal then you should repeat the test every three years. If the results are borderline, your physician will tell you when you should come back to retest. Screening is also recommended for people under 45 and overweight especially if you have heart disease or a family history of type 2 diabetes, or blood pressure above 135/80.

There is no cure for diabetes but it can be controlled, but it does require a lifelong commitment to blood sugar monitoring, healthy eating, regular exercise, possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy. The main goal of treatment is to first lower high blood glucose levels and the long-term goal of treatment is to prevent problems from diabetes. The main treatment for type 2 diabetes is to exercise and diet. Type 2 diabetes can basically be controlled by following a few steps; As long as you test and record your blood glucose, know when to eat and when to eat, how to take your medications if any are needed, and how to recognize and treat low and high blood sugar. It can take several months to get the hang of these basic skills but as everything else it will become second nature.

There are several types of medication that can be prescribed by your doctor if diet and exercise does not keep your blood sugar at normal or near normal levels. Some of the drugs prescribed help lower your blood sugar levels in different ways, so therefore your doctor may have you take more than one drug. Some of the most common types of medication are as follows: Alpha-glucose inhibitors (such as acarbose), Biguanides (Metformin), Injectable medicines (including exenatide, mitiglinide, pramlintide, sitagliptin, and saxagliptin) Meglitinides (including repaglinide and nateglinide), sulfonylureas (like glimepiride, glyburide, and tolazamide), and Thiazolidinediones (such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone). Rosiglitazone may increase the risk of heart problems, so before you take this particular medication make sure to discuss any possibilities of heart problems with your physician. These drugs may be given with insulin, or may be used alone. You may need insulin if you continue to have poor blood glucose control. It must be injected under the skin using a syringe or insulin pen device. Insulin cannot be taken by mouth. Women who have type 2 diabetes and become pregnant may be switched to insulin during their pregnancy and while breast-feeding because it is not known whether hyperglycemia medications taken by mouth are safe for use of pregnancy.

Although long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually, they can eventually be disabling or even life-threatening. Diabetes can lead to more serious problems after many years. You can develop eye problems, including trouble seeing especially at night, and light sensitivity, and you can even become blind. Your feet and skin can develop sores and infections. After a long time your foot or leg may need to be removed. Diabetes also makes it harder to control your blood pressure and cholesterol. This can lead to a heart attack, stroke, and other problems. It makes it harder for the blood to flow to your legs and feet. The nerves in your body can get damaged and cause pain, tingling, and loss of feeling. And because of nerve damage you could have problems digesting the food you eat. You could feel weakness or have trouble going to the bathroom. Nerve damage can also make it harder for men to have an erection. High blood sugar and other problems can lead to kidney damage. Your kidneys may not work as well and they may even stop working. In order to prevent problems from diabetes, you should visit your health care provider or diabetes educator at least four times a year and discuss any problems you are having.

You should always pay close attention to the symptoms of Type-2. If you have a dry mouth, increased hunger, blurred vision, headaches, fatigue, and unexplained weight loss, then you have the most common symptoms. Do not ignore any of these symptoms and get medical attention as soon as possible. Type 2 diabetes can be easy to ignore, especially in the early stages when you’re feeling fine. But diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Controlling your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications. Good management of your type 2 diabetes includes using your medicines exactly as your doctor prescribes them, making smart food choices, and being physically active. Always remember one thing “your body is your temple” and we must learn how to take care of it and treat the body right so the body can be good to us in return.

History Of Music – An Overview

The definition of music is defined in many ways; Webster’s definition is as follows “an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, or harmony.” There are many theories regarding when and where music formed. Many agree that music began even before man existed. Researchers point out that there are six periods of music and each period has a certain style of music that made what music is today. Here are some resources for you to better understand the history of music. (Estrella 2001)

Music is traced back as far as “ancient Israel” a thousand years before Christ; King David composed and sang hundreds of songs called psalms. A few of them are written in the old testament in the book of Psalms. But music as we know it now, as having structure and form, may have begun in the 10th century with the Gregorian chants. These songs were organized and detailed with soloists and small groups singing “distinctive parts”. The music we are more in common with began around the year 1200 and soon after, troubadours singing “folk” music starting to appear in parts of Europe. The appearance of composers, made music, and the creation of the instruments such as the piano and lute. (Ezine Articles 2005)

The years 1750 to 1820 is known as the Classical period with the piano being a composer’s instrument of choice. Mozart wrote his first symphony, Bach performed in London, and Beethoven was finally born. Many of the symphonies we enjoy today were written during this time. Music has truly evolved since this period though. In 1900, a man named Scott Joplin had composed and published the “Maple Leaf Rag,” an event many see as the beginnings of the music we know today as popular music. “Soon after, new musical forms were taking hold. Jazz in the 1930s (Louis Armstrong, Billie Holiday), big band music in the 1940s (Tommy Dorsey, Duke Ellington), and rock-and-roll (Elvis Presley, Chuck Barry) in the 1950s. Other countries (most notably France and Spain) were creating their own popular music during this time”. (Ezine 2005)

The three time periods I want to focus on is Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Contemporary. This is all known to us to day as Opera, R&B, Rock, Hip Hop, Soul, etc. Music has been around for years and can be broken down into many stages or cycles. People everywhere all over the world make their own style of music. Every genre, sound, melody is different in some way.

When we look at the medieval music, we are dealing with the longest and most distant period of musical history. “Saint Gregory is credited with organizing the huge repertory of chant that developed during the first centuries of the Christian church, hence the term Gregorian chant”. He was pope from 590 to 604, and the medieval era continued into the 1400s, so this period consists of music. One of the principal difficulties in studying medieval music is that a system for notating music developed only gradually. The first examples of musical notation date from around 900. For several centuries, notation only indicated what pitch to sing. The system for notating rhythm started in the 12th or 13th century. Gregorian chant is monophonic, meaning music that consists of only one melodic line without accompaniment. The beauty of chant lies in the serene, undulating shapes of its melody. We do not know who wrote the melodies of Gregorian chant. Like folk melodies, the music probably mutated as it was passed down through generations and eventually reached its notated form. Polyphony, music where two or more melodic lines are heard simultaneously, did not exist (or was not notated) until the 11th century. Unlike chant, polyphony required the participation of a composer to combine the melodic lines in a pleasing manner. Although most medieval polyphonic music is anonymous–the names of the composers were either lost or never written down at all–there are composers whose work was so important that their names were preserved along with their music. (Ezine 2005)

Renaissance is reflected by the changing role of the composer in society. Unlike most of their medieval times, the great masters of the Renaissance were created in their own lifetimes. The technique of printing music, while slow to evolve, helped in the “preservation and distribution” of music and musical ideas. Sacred music was still predominant, though other music became more prevalent and more sophisticated. The repertory of instrumental music also began to expand significantly. New instruments were invented, including the clavichord and virginal and many existing instruments were improved. Masses and motets were the primary forms of sacred vocal polyphony. Other vocal forms included motets, madrigals and songs (generally accompanied by lute or a small instrumental ensemble or “consort”). Instrumental pieces were usually short polyphonic works or music for dancing. (Ezine 2005)

Compared with the medieval style, Renaissance polyphony was lush and sonorous. The era between Josquin Desprez and Palestrina is known as “the golden age of polyphony.” Imitation–where one melodic line shares, or imitates the same musical theme as a previous melodic line–became an important polyphonic technique. Imitation was one method composers used to make complex music more easily comprehensible and give the listener a sense of structure. Imitative polyphony can be heard in the masses and motets of composers from Josquin onward and is featured in instrumental music by Byrd, Gibbons, and the Gabriellis.

Baroque music is often “highly ornate, colorful and richly textured when compared with its predecessors”. Opera was born at what is considered to be the very beginning of the Baroque era, around 1600. This unique form combines poetry, theater, the visual arts and music. It came about because a group of Italian intellectuals wanted to recapture the spirit of ancient Greek drama in which music played a key role. The first great opera was “Orfeo, by Claudio Monteverdi”, first performed in 1607. Music’s ability to express human emotions and depict natural phenomenon was explored throughout the Baroque period. Vivaldi’s famous set of concertos, The Four Seasons, is a famous example. Although imitative polyphony remained fundamental to musical composition, homophonic writing became increasingly important. Homophonic music features a clear distinction between the melody line and a subsidiary accompaniment part. This style was important in opera and other solo vocal music because it focused the listener’s attention on the expressive melody of the singer. The homophonic style gradually became prevalent in instrumental music as well. (Ezine 2005)

Many Baroque works include a continuo part in which a keyboard (harpsichord or organ) and bass instrument (cello or bassoon) provide the harmonic underpinning of chords that accompanies the melodic line. New polyphonic forms were developed, and as in the Renaissance, composers considered the art of counterpoint (the crafting of polyphony) to be essential to their art. Canons and fugues, two very strict forms of imitative polyphony, were extremely popular. Composers were even expected to be able to improvise complex fugues on a moment’s notice to prove their skill. The orchestra evolved during the early Baroque, starting as an “accompanist” for operatic and vocal music. By the mid-1600s the orchestra had a life of its own. The concerto was a favorite Baroque form that featured a solo instrumentalist (or small ensemble of soloists) playing “against” the orchestra, creating interesting contrasts of volume and texture. Many Baroque composers were also virtuoso performers. For example, Archangelo Corelli was famous for his violin playing and Johann Sebastian Bach was famous for his keyboard skills. The highly ornamented quality of Baroque melody lent itself perfectly to such displays of musical “dexterity”. (Grieg 2002)

The word Classical has strong meaning, mixed with the “art and

Philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome, along with their ideals of disciplined expression.” The late Braque was complex and melodically different. The composers of the early Classical period changed direction, writing music that was much simpler to understand. Homophony music, another part of classical music in which “melody and charm are distinct, and has dominated the Classical style is another form of classical music. New forms of composition were developed to accommodate the transformation.” Santana Form is the most important of these forms, and one that continued to evolve throughout the Classical period. Although Baroque composers also wrote pieces called sonatas, the Classical sonata was different. The essence of the Classical Sonata is difficult to understand. A highly simplified example of such a conflict might be between two themes of “contrasting character”. (Grieg 2002)

This contrast would be found during the course of the sonata, and then resolved. Sonata form allowed composers to give pure instrumental music recognizable dramatic shape. Every major form of the Classical era, including the string quartet, symphony and concerto was molded on the dramatic structure of the sonata.

One of the most important developments of the Classical period is the growth of the public concert. Although the aristocracy would continue to play a significant role in musical life, it was now possible for composers to survive without being the employee of one person or family. This also meant that concerts were no longer limited to palace drawing rooms. Composers organized concerts featuring their own music, and attracted large audiences. The increasing popularity of the public concert had a strong impact on the growth of the orchestra. Although chamber music and solo works were played in the home or other intimate settings, orchestral concerts seemed to be naturally designed for big public spaces. As a result, symphonic music composers gradually expanded the size of the orchestra to accommodate this expanded musical vision. (Grieg 2002)

Just as the word “Classical” “conjures” up certain images, Romantic music also does the same. Whether we think of those romance novels with the Romanticism implies fantasy and sensuality. The Classical period focused on emotional restraint. Classical music was expressive, but not so passionate that it could overwhelm the work “Beethoven, who was in some ways responsible for igniting the flame of romanticism, always struggled (sometimes unsuccessfully) to maintain that balance.” (Greig 2002)

Many composers of the Romantic period followed Beethoven’s model and found their own balance between emotional intensity and Classical form. Others reveled in the new atmosphere of artistic freedom and created music whose structure was designed to support its emotional surges. Musical story-telling became important, and not just in opera, but in “pure” instrumental music as well. The tone-poem is a particularly Romantic invention, as it was an orchestral work whose structure was entirely dependent on the scene being depicted or the story being told. Color was another important feature of Romantic music. A large palette of musical colors was necessary to depict the exotic scenes that became so popular. In addition to seeking out the sights and sounds of other places, composers began exploring the music of their native countries. Nationalism became a driving force in the late Romantic period and composers wanted their music to express their cultural identity. This desire was particularly intense in Russia and Eastern Europe, where elements of folk music were incorporated into symphonies, tone-poems and other “Classical” forms. (Wagner 1999)

The Romantic period was the days of the “virtuoso”. Gifted performers and particularly pianists, violinists, and singers became enormously popular. Liszt, the great Hungarian pianist/composer, reportedly played with such passion and intensity that woman in the audience would faint. Since, like Liszt, most composers were also virtuoso performers, it was inevitable that the music they wrote would be extremely challenging to play. The Romantic period witnessed a glorification of the artist whether musician, poet or painter that has had a powerful impact on our own culture. (Wagner 1999) This style of music became known as being romantic.

The “evolution” of music is at least partly shaped by the influence one composer has on another. These influences are not always positive, however. Sometimes composers react against the music of their recent past (even though they might admire it) and move in what seems to be the opposite direction. For example, the simplified style of the early Classical period was almost certainly a reaction to the extreme intricacies of the late Baroque. The late Romantic period featured its own extremes: sprawling symphonies and tone-poems overflowing with music that seemed to stretch harmony and melody to their limits. It is certainly possible to view some early 20th century music as an extension of the late Romantic style, but a great deal of it can also be interpreted as a reaction against that style. 20th century music is a series of “isms” and “neo-isms.” The primal energy of Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring has been called “neo-Primitivism”. “The intensely emotional tone of Schönberg’s early music has been labeled Expressionism”. The return to clearly structured forms and textures has been “dubbed neo-Classicism”. (R. Strauss)

These terms have been employed in an attempt to organize the diversity of styles running through the 20th century. Nationalism continued to be a strong musical influence in the first half of the century. The study of folk songs enriched the music of numerous composers, such as Ralph Vaughan Williams (England), Bela Bartok (Hungary), Heitor Villa Lobos (Brazil) and Aaron Copland (USA). Jazz and popular musical styles have also been tremendously influential on “classical” composers from both the United States and Europe. Technology has played a increasingly important role in the development of 20th century music. Composers have used recording tape as a compositional tool (such as Steve Reich’s Violin Phase). Electronically generated sounds have been used both on their own and in combination with traditional instruments. More recently, computer technology has been used in a variety of ways, including manipulating the performance of instruments in real time. (R. Strauss)

So as you can see, music has been around for centuries. Many people have helped music evolve over the years. The six long periods of music that were discussed above really helped music become what is today. Although each individual listen to various types of music they all started the same, with either a rhythm or beat. Music was originated long before humans even existed and grew from there. Music in general has made the world a better place. It gives people a way to express themselves. Music has been called ‘The International Language; a very simple thought with much meaning behind it. Even if you can’t speak the language of a country, you can move, sway, dance and most of all enjoy the music of the country. We may not understand the words of a musical selection but we do understand the beauty. (Ruth 2008)

Music’s interconnection with society can be seen throughout history. Every known culture on the earth has music. Music seems to be one of the basic actions of humans. However, early music was not handed down from generation to generation or recorded. Hence, there is no official record of “prehistoric” music. Even so, there is evidence of prehistoric music from the findings of flutes carved from bones.

The influence of music on society can be clearly seen from modern history. Music helped Thomas Jefferson write the Declaration of Independence. When he could not figure out the right wording for a certain part, he would play his violin to help him. The music helped him get the words from his brain onto the paper. In general, responses to music are able to be observed. It has been proven that music influences humans both in good and bad ways. These effects are instant and long lasting. Music is thought to link all of the emotional, spiritual, and physical elements of the universe. Music can also be used to change a person’s mood, and has been found to cause like physical responses in many people simultaneously. Music also has the ability to strengthen or weaken emotions from a particular event such as a funeral.

People perceive and respond to music in different ways. The level of musicianship of the performer and the listener as well as the manner in which a piece is performed affects the “experience” of music. An experienced and accomplished musician might hear and feel a piece of music in a totally different way than a non-musician or beginner. This is why two accounts of the same piece of music can contradict themselves. (O’Donnell 2001)

“According to The Center for New Discoveries in Learning, learning potential can be increased a minimum of five times by using this 60 beats per minute music. For example, the ancient Greeks sang their dramas because they understood how music could help them remember more easily). A renowned Bulgarian psychologist, Dr. George Lozanov, designed a way to teach foreign languages in a fraction of the normal learning time. Using his system, students could learn up to one half of the vocabulary and phrases for the whole school term (which amounts to almost 1,000 words or phrases) in one day. Along with this, the average retention rate of his students was 92%. Dr. Lozanov’s system involved using certain classical music pieces from the baroque period which have around a 60 beats per minute pattern. He has proven that foreign languages can be learned with 85-100% efficiency in only thirty days by using these baroque pieces. His students had a recall accuracy rate of almost 100% even after not reviewing the material for four years.” The article above discusses how the history of music not only helped human beings but impacted their lives greatly to where we learn better and think better. (O’Donnell 2001)

Cyber Warfare: The Future of War



Karl von Clausewitz defined war as “…an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will In order to attain this object fully, the enemy must be disarmed, and disarmament becomes therefore the immediate object of hostilities….” At the end of the second millennium, this classification no longer describes the full spectrum of modern warfare. In the future, we will have the prospective to make war without the use of violence and fulfill the second half of von Clausewitz’s definition-with software alone. Today’s software intensive systems make this probable. “Cyber” describes systems that use mechanical or electronic systems to swap human control. Cyber warfare can be executed without violence and therefore the reliance on software intensive systems-cyber systems-can make nations exposed to warfare without violence.

What is Cyber? Terms with cyber used as prefix are currently in vogue not only among some visionaries and technologists seeking new concepts, but even by the man in the street, and each has its own connotation. The term cyber is from Greek root kybernan, meaning to steer or govern and a related word Kybernetes, meaning pilot, governor, and/ or helmsman. Norbert Weiner first introduced the prefix in the 1940s in his classic works creating the field of cybernetics (which is related to cybrenetique, an older French word meaning the art of government). Cyber, in fact has been the most acceptable term due to the reason that it bridges the gap between information and governance, the two inseparable facets of control. The prefix therefore, is freely used in the following:

  1. Cyberspace. Originally coined by William Gibson in his science fiction novel Neuromancer, published in 1984, and defines it as that position within the computer where electronic activity / communication takes place. He further describes it as a place of ” unthinkable complexity”. The term has given rise to a vocabulary of “cyberterms” such as cybercafes (cafes that sell coffee and computer time), cybermalls (online shopping services) and cyberjunkies (people addicted to being online).
  2. Cybernetics. It is the science of communication and control, which interfaces a monitor (human brain or an electronic machine) to other parts of a system. The function being, to compare what is happening in the system, to what should have happened and then draw the difference, which is passed on to the control system for rectification (feedback). It applies equally to organisations, machines and organisms. Cybernetics is also used to describe a general analytical approach to control, communication and other system technologies and attempts to link engineering disciplines with the related work of social scientists through the unifying threads of feedback in its most general aspects and through its interest in transfer of information.
  3. Cyberwar. A RAND Corporation synonym for information warfare, it is also sometime called netwar. Another school considers it as knowledge related conflict at the military level. However, Denis Quigley comes close by designating it as ‘control warfare’ or leitenkreig in German. Cyberwar will be discussed more in detail later in the Study.
  4. Cybernation. Loosely used, it implies digitisation of various systems of an arrangement/organisation or super systems, where electronics links humans to machines, thereby immensly amplifying the human capabilities. It, in its most basic form, would indicate electronic automated management of information and knowledge.

Cyber warfare (CW). It is a relatively new addition to the glossary of warfare. With the escalating use of computers in military and government, there has been a growing awareness of both a new susceptibility in national infrastructure and a new method of attacking one’s enemies. There is the potential of using information systems to protect, control or attack information networks. CW could mean winning wars without firing shots, the shutting down of entire national infrastructures at the push of a button, and the complete exploitation or destruction of an enemy’s communication networks. It could mean threats from across the world by states with no ability to launch a conventional attack, or attacks by non-state actors using cheap laptops. There has also been talk of super-viruses shutting down nations, and how a disgruntled individual or small group could wage a ‘war’ on a nation. CW is the new wonder weapon, and the new unknown threat. However, the concept of CW, and the technology on which it relies, is beset by vague depictions of the dangers it presents, or the benefits it offers.

CW is conceptualised by security expert Amit Yoran, cyber-security chief at the US Department of Homeland Security and vice president of computer corporation Symantec, as the future “primary theatre of operations”. There is a consensus that CW is something noteworthy, but it is not clear if this consensus extends to a common understanding of what CW actually is. It is so new that there is no standard definition to describe it. This leads to one of the most frequent confusions regarding cyber warfare: its relation to Information Warfare(IW). IW is not unproblematic in definition, but can be understood as the “offensive and defensive use of information and information systems to deny, exploit, corrupt, or destroy, an adversary’s information, information-based processes, information systems, and computer-based networks while protecting one’s own”. While IW covers the territory of cyber warfare, it also covers a much broader mandate. Electronic (‘cyber’) communication is only one aspect of IW, which includes all information operations in a conflict. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu and Napoleonic strategist Carl von Clausewitz referred to information operations, and the importance of such operations in war. IW predates electronic communication, and is not interchangeable with cyber warfare for this reason.

CW involves units organized along nation-state boundaries, in offensive and defensive operations, using computers to attack other computers or networks through electronic means. Hackers and other individuals trained in software programming and exploiting the intricacies of computer networks are the primary executors of these attacks. These individuals often operate under the auspices and possibly the support of nation-state actors. In the future, if not already common practice, individual cyber warfare units will execute attacks against targets in a cooperative and simultaneous manner.

Analyzing the Threat. In 2007, a denial-of-service attack was launched every 53 minutes. The 2007 FBI/Computer Security Institute study indicated that loss of revenue attributed to DDoS (dedicated denial of service) was approximately US$90,000 an hour for a retail catalog sales company. Malware is a common cyber-weapon. Malware (short for malicious software) is a computer program designed with malicious intent. This intent may be to cause annoying pop-up ads with the hope you will click on one and generate revenue, or forms of spyware, Trojans and viruses that can be used to take over your computer, steal your identity, swipe sensitive financial information or track your activities. At least five new pieces of malware emerge every two minutes, according to Kaspersky’s Internet Security Lab. One critical measure I monitor regularly is the number of significant events reported to Hackerwatch.Org. At the time I’m writing this, in the past 24 hours, there have been more than 8 million significant incidents reported. The warning signs are there, but the question remains: Are we smart enough to prepare?

A key premise of this paper is that information processing-whether by equipment (computers) or by humans-is becoming a “center of gravity” in future warfare. Although there is much debate on the reality of the CW threat, the growing number of computer intrusions on government and non-government systems substantiate the fact that the threat is very real. The growing dependency on information and information based technologies have made us very vulnerable to hostile attacks Hence, our immediate goal must be to both imagine and define how foreign cyber attack capabilities might threaten information networks in India and what potential effects they might have.



This paper seeks to study and analyse the use of cyber warfare in future conflicts & its implications on national security. To suggest India’s response to these cyber threats by outlining a clear, well defined cyber security strategy and suggest measures to safeguard own national security.


As information systems permeate in military and civil lives, a new frontier is being crossed – The Information Age- which will define the future wars. Cyber Warfare has become central to the way nations fight wars and is the emerging theatre in which future conflicts are most likely to occur. Cyber warfare will take the form of a devastating weapon of the future battlefield which will be integrated in the ‘War fighting Doctrines’ of nations across the world.


The premise of cyber warfare is that nations and critical infrastructure are becoming increasingly dependent on computer networks for their operation. Also as armies around the world are transforming from a platform centric to a network centric force there is increasing reliance on networking technology. With all the advantages of such connectivity come unprecedented challenges to network security. Threats to information infrastructure could be in the form of destruction, disclosure, modification of data and/or denial of service. A hostile nation or group could exploit the vulnerabilities in poorly secured network to disrupt or shut down critical functions.

The protection of our information resources – information assurance, will thus be one of the defining challenges of national and military security in the years to come. To take advantage of Information Technology revolution and its application as a force multiplier, the Nation and army in particular needs to focus on Cyber Security to ensure protection / defence of its information and information system assets.

Many will argue that defence and intelligence computer systems of most countries including Idia are air gapped and thus, isolated from the Internet. It may appear convincing that by air gapping the networks and using superior technology, the risk may be reduced. However, this will not provide fool proof security. With the proliferation of technology at an astronomical rate, the threat of cyber terrorism will only increase. The air gapped networks are vulnerable from insiders, disgruntled employees and moles planted or recruited by cyber terrorists or their sympathisers to cause the intended damage. A cyber terrorist may impersonate a computer technician and call individuals within the targeted organisation to obtain information to penetrate a system. Once in possession of legitimate log on information, cyber terrorists will have Iegal access to a system and can insert viruses, trojan horses, or worms to expand their control of the system or shut it down. In Russia, hackers used a gas company employee to plant a trojan horse which gave them control of the nation’s gas pipelines. It is against this backdrop that it becomes imperative as a soldier to understand cyberspace, the threat that it poses and to suggest some steps in order to minimise, if not eliminate the menace that it would cause.


This study concentrates on the evolution of cyber warfare and the giant leaps that it has taken in the past decade. The entire spectrum of cyber conflict, including threat reality of cyber warfare being used as a potent and devastating weapon of the future battlefield has been covered. Further the study outlines the cyber warfare capabilities of select nations and how vulnerable India is to these threats. Finally the report outlines a cyber security strategy and recommendations for combating the cyber warfare threat in the 21st century.


The data has been collected through various journals, seminar papers and certain books on the subject. Some material has also been downloaded from the Internet. A bibliography of sources is appended at the end of the text.


It is proposed to study the subject under following chapters:

  1. Chapter I – Introduction and Methodology.
  2. Chapter II
    The Future of Warfare.
    Information Revolution and Warfare.
    Defining Cyberwar.
    Evolution of Cyber Warfare.
  3. Chapter III
    Global Threat in Cyberspace.
    Threats in Cyberspae.
    How Real Is the Threat?
    Spectrum of Cyber Conflict.
    Recognition of the Cyber Warfare Threat.
  4. Chapter IV – Combating the Threat.
    How Vulnerable are We?
    Cyber Security: A Few Initiatives.
    Def Cyber Warfare.
    Cyber security Strategy.
  5. Chapter V Conclusion.
    The Digital Battlefield.



“So it is said, if you know others and know yourself, you will not be imperiled in a hundred battles; if you don’t know others, but know yourself, you will win one and lose one; if you don’t know others and don’t know yourself, you will be imperiled in every single battle.” -Sun Tzu

Will conventional warfare remain the custom for the future or will a new wave of warfare emerge? Down through the corridors of time, wars have been fought for various reasons. Conflict arose from regional instabilities, economic and social perils, and religious animosities. In their book, War and Anti-War: Survival At The Dawn of The 21st Century, Alvin and Heidi Toffler categorize the progression of warfare into three stages or waves: agrarian, industrial, and informational. While some areas of the world still remain in the agrarian realm and some others have advanced to the industrial state, a few have broken out into a completely new era-the information age.


If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles .If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. This extract comes from the 6th century BC Sun Tzu’s The Art of War and is still as compelling today as it was two and a half millennia ago. As a matter of fact, it is in all probability safe to say that knowledge and information about one’s adversary have a greater impact now than they have had at any other point in the history of warfare. At the same time, critical information is now often stored electronically in spaces reachable from the Internet, which means there is a prospective for it to leak out to one’s adversary, or for the opponent corrupting it in order to affect one’s decision making capabilities.

There is no standardised definition of Information Warfare. However it has been defined as “Actions taken to achieve information superiority by affecting adversely information, information based processes, information systems and computer based networks of the adversary, while protecting one’s own information”.

An aim of warfare always has been to affect the enemy’s information systems. In the broadest sense, information systems encompass every means by which an adversary arrives at knowledge or beliefs. A narrower view maintains that information systems are the means by which an adversary exercises control over, and direction of fielded forces. Taken together, information systems are a comprehensive set of the knowledge, beliefs, and the decision making processes and systems of the adversary. The outcome sought by information attacks at every level is for the enemy to receive sufficient messages that convince him to stop fighting.

Information Warfare is a form of conflict that attacks information system directly as a means to attack adversary’s knowledge or beliefs. Information Warfare can be prosecuted as a component of a larger and more comprehensive set of hostile activities a net war or cyber war or it can be undertaken as the sole form of hostile activities. Most weapons, a word used to describe the lethal and nonlethal tools of warfare only have high utility against external adversaries. While most often employed against external adversaries, many of the weapons of information warfare are equally well suited for employment against internal constituencies. For example, a state or group cannot use guns or bombs against its own members; however, the weapons of Information Warfare can be used, have been used, and very likely will be used against both external and internal adversaries.

Information warfare as defined by Martin Libicki has seven components:

  1. Command and Control Warfare.
  2. Intelligence based warfare.
  3. Electronic Warfare.
  4. Psychological Operations.
  5. Hacker Warfare.
  6. Economic Information Warfare.
  7. Cyber Warfare.

This concept of seven components is universally recognised today, as it encompasses the entire spectrum that Information Warfare offers. Besides, it strongly argues that Information Warfare is not exclusively a military function and various actors viz. the media, private industry and civil society including civilian hackers play a key role in building a nation’s capability to wage Information Warfare. The role of private industry has gradually been acknowledged as cutting edge information technologies become increasingly pervasive in sensors and weapon systems. The information systems while making the military more efficient also render it vulnerable to attacks on the systems itself. Winn Schwartau, also known as the “Civil Architect of Information Warfare” has defined Information Warfare in this very context: “Information Warfare is a conflict in which information and information systems act as both the weapons and the targets”. As far as the Indian viewpoint on Information Warfare is concerned, history amply reveals that information was essentially viewed as a strategic resource. Kautilya, the great strategist of the Maurya period, strongly advocated the need of obtaining accurate information about the enemy forces and plans of action. In fact, he is considered to be instrumental in the victory of the Mauryan’s and placing Chandragupta Maurya on the Magadha throne. His astute thinking on warfare and statecraft is portrayed in the famous treatise Arthshastra. While postulating that war may not always be the right option, Kautilya espoused the importance of information and knowledge in winning wars.

Information Superiority and Cyber Warfare. Information Technology is a double edged weapon. It provides vast opportunities but simultaneously introduces new vulnerabilities and threats, which may arise through computers, content and connectivity or, to put it differently, hardware, software, information and networks. Information superiority over our adversaries including militant and terrorist outfits is very essential. Non Lethal information weapons can black out communication systems, destroy valuable data and cripple the nation. Therefore, we have to act faster than any adversary. This requires defensive as well as offensive cyber warfare capabilities. Cyber warfare can be a full fledged war and vital infrastructure shall get targeted. To handle cyber wars, highest national level decision making is required, in real time and with full fall back options. For this purpose, basic building blocks include excellent monitoring tools for network traffic, web sites and databases, intrusion detection, firewalls, encryption and decryption algorithms, public key infrastructure and remote access facilities. Offensive cyber warfare spans computer crimes and information terrorism. Everyone is under threat telephone, power supply, banks, transport, and the day to day needs. lt is important to create tools, awareness, and structures to assess threats to information resources, including military and economic espionage computer break-ins, denial-of-service, destruction and modification of data, distortion of information, forgery, control and disruption of information flow, electronic bombs, etc. ln essence, the thrust of the initiatives must lead to information assurance like life assurance.


Cyber Warfare. It is the sub-set of information warfare that involves actions taken within the cyber world. There are many cyber worlds, but the one most appropriate to cyber warfare is the Internet and related networks that share media with the Internet. Cyber Warfare as related to defence forces refers to conducting of military operations according to information related doctrine. It means disrupting or destroying information databases and communication systems. It means trying to know everything about the enemy while keeping the adversary from knowing much about oneself. It means turning the equilibrium of information and knowledge in one’s favour especially if the balance of forces is not. It means using information so that less capital and labour may have to be expended.

Cyberwar refers to conducting, and preparing to conduct, military operations according to information-related ideology. It means disrupting if not destroying the information and communications systems, broadly defined to include even military culture, on which an adversary relies in order to “know” itself: who it is, where it is, what it can do when, why it is combating, which threats to counter first, etc. It means trying to know all about an opponent while keeping it from knowing much about oneself. It means turning the “balance of information and knowledge” in one’s favour. This form of warfare may involve diverse technologies-notably for C3I; for intelligence collection, processing, and distribution; for tactical communications, positioning, and identification-friend-or-foe (IFF); and for “smart” weapons systems-to give but a few examples. It may also involve electronically blinding, jamming, deceiving, overloading, and intruding into an adversary’s information and communications circuits. Yet cyberwar is not simply a set of measures based on technology. And it should not be confused with past meanings of computerized, automated, robotic, or electronic warfare.

Cyber warfare requires different principles of warfare which have been derived from thousands of years of experience as documented by Sun Tzu, Clausewitz, Jomini, Liddell-Hart, and others. Some of the kinetic warfare principles apply to cyber warfare while some principles of kinetic warfare have no meaning in cyber warfare. Some principles of kinetic warfare may actually be antagonistic to cyber warfare. The various characteristics and principles of cyber warfare are as under:

  1. Waging cyber war is relatively cheap. Unlike traditional weapon technologies, acquiring information weapons does not require vast financial resources or state sponsorship.
  2. Boundaries are blurred in cyberspace. Traditional distinctions public versus private interests, warlike versus criminal behavior, geographic boundaries, such as those between nations tend to get lost in the chaotic and rapidly expanding world of cyberspace.
  3. Opportunities abound to manipulate perception in cyberspace. Political action groups and other nongovernment organisation’s can utilize the Internet to galvanize political support.
  4. Cyber war has no front line. Current trends suggest that the economy will increasingly rely on complex, interconnected network control systems for such necessities as oil and gas pipelines, electric grids, etc. and these will become vulnerable to cyber attacks.
  5. Cyber-warfare must have kinetic world effects. Cyber warfare is meaningless unless it affects someone or something in the non cyber world.
  6. Anonymity. Cyber warfare can be waged anonymously. Anonymity is the nature of new technologies, especially telecommunications. An anonymous attack creates two problems. Not only has a state’s national security been breached, but there is no one to hold accountable for the attack.
  7. Offensive Nature. Information technology and computer systems are vulnerable by nature. Therefore, taking defensive measures against the information warfare threat will always be difficult and costly. Improving the defense of information systems also contributes to the security dilemma since decreasing one’s susceptibility to information warfare increases the attraction of using information warfare offensively.

Cyberwar may have broad ramifications for military organization and doctrine. As noted, the literature on the information revolution calls for organizational innovations so that different parts of an institution function like interconnected networks rather than separate hierarchies. Thus cyberwar may imply some institutional redesign for a military in both intra- and inter-service areas. Moving to networked structures may require some decentralization of command and control, which may well be resisted in light of earlier views that the new technology would provide greater central control of military operations. But decentralization is only part of the picture; the new technology may also provide greater “topsight”-a central understanding of the big picture that enhances the management of complexity. Many treatments of organizational redesign laud decentralization; yet decentralization alone is not the key issue. The pairing of decentralization with topsight brings the real gains.

Cyberwar may also imply developing new doctrines about what kinds of forces are needed, where and how to deploy them, and what and how to strike on the enemy’s side. How and where to position what kinds of computers and related sensors, networks, databases, etc. may become as important as the question used to be for the deployment of bombers and their support functions. Cyberwar may also have implications for the integration of the political and psychological with the military aspects of warfare.

In sum, cyberwar may raise broad issues of military organization and doctrine, as well as strategy, tactics, and weapons design. It may be applicable in low- and high-intensity conflicts, in conventional and non-conventional environments, and for defensive or offensive purposes.

As an innovation in warfare, I anticipate that cyberwar may be to the 21st century what blitzkrieg was to the 20th century. At a minimum, it represents an extension of the traditional importance of obtaining information in war-of having superior C3I, and of trying to locate, read, surprise, and deceive the enemy before he does the same to you. That remains important no matter what overall strategy is pursued. In this sense, the concept means that information-related factors are more important than ever due to new technologies


Since the early days of the Internet, there were individuals trying to compromise computer systems’ security via the network. Initially their activities were limited to defacement of web pages and motivated mostly by mere thrill seeking. In the 1990’s political activists realized the potential for publicity coming with the attacks, and defacements carrying a political message became more frequent (Hacktivism). The palette of attack types also widened greatly, most notably some of them became aimed at bringing services or whole systems down, by generating excessive network traffic (denial of service, email bombardments).

The first reported politically motivated cyber terrorist attack using a flood of emails was carried out by the Tamil Tigers against Sri Lankan embassies in 1998. It was successful, even as it did not bring targeted servers down, because more importantly it attracted worldwide media attention to the attackers’ cause. Activist groups involved in other struggles around the world soon followed with similar attempts.

The diplomatic conflict between Pakistan and India over Kashmir has, since the late 1990’s, been paralleled by a series of mutual cyber attacks. In the Middle East, every time political or military fight escalated between Israel and Palestinians, so did fights on the virtual battlefield. Both sides have used sophisticated techniques and well planned strategies for their cyber attacks. Pro-Palestinian attacks have been carried out by a number of terrorist groups (some of which even came up with the term cyber jihad), and pro-Jewish ones might have been coordinated by the state of Israel, though there is no clear evidence to support that. Studies have shown that Israel leads the list of countries in terms of numbers of conducted computer attacks per 10,000 Internet users.

This brings us to the newest trend in cyber warfare: cyber attacks carried out by hacker groups inspired, coordinated, funded and supplied with resources by nation states. They are usually large scale and prolonged operations targeting specific systems within enemy structures. Probably the first of this type of attacks took place during the NATO air strikes against targets in Former Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo violence in 2000. Targeted were all 100 of NATO servers, each subject to excessive network traffic originating mostly from Serbia, as well as Russia and China – it’s supporters in the conflict. The cyber attacks caused serious disruptions in NATO’s communication and services, lasting several days, but did not directly affect the bombing campaign.

These days cyber warfare still mostly consists of uncoordinated cyber terrorism acts performed by groups whose main aim is publicity and media coverage. Gradually though the nature of cyber warfare is going to change into activities coordinated and paid for by nation states and large international terrorist networks. We can expect attacks trying to exploit vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure like telecommunication systems, airports, power plants, oil and gas infrastructure, supply of water, and military systems. In the coming years we are likely to see a quick rise in the number of cyber battles and one can imagine that in the future wars are going to be fought without dropping bombs and firing missiles.




There are four fundamental categories of threats to our information and information infrastructure, characterised by the degree of structure in their attack capability and the measure of trust or access that the threat enjoys. These categories are:

  1. Unstructured External Threats. These are individual or small group of attackers who rely heavily on other’s tools and published vulnerabilities. They attack targets of opportunity and lack persistence against difficult targets.
  2. Structured External Threats. These are coordinated attackers i.e. hostile intelligence agencies or organised crime syndicates, which possess a deep technical knowledge of the target, strong motivation, and the capability to mount combination attacks using multiple complex tactics and techniques.
  3. Non Malicious Internal Threats. These are accidental breaches of security caused due to ignorance or malfunctioning of system.
  4. Malicious Internal Threats. Here the attackers are trusted members of the org or a less trusted support worker with some degree of access.

The threats can also be classified under the following heads:

Remote Intrusion. What can also be called remote attacks or break-ins. These attacks can be carried out by the following methods:

  1. Spyware. Any program that covertly gathers info through internet connection without the host’s knowledge once installed, spywares monitor user activity on the internet and transmit info to interested parties in addition to wasting bandwidth.
  2. Back Doors and Trap Doors. A program built into a system that allows the designer or manufacturer to ‘take a peep into the system files and information resources’ at a later point in time by circumventing the access controls that are put in place for all users.
  3. Scanning. Scanning is the act of actively looking for information. Scanning can be a very broad sweeping activity, such as scanning for any active hosts, or a very detailed specific activity such as looking only for servers running Windows NT 4.0, Service Pack 4, and Internet Information Server 4.0.
  4. Chipping. A technique to slip booby trapped computer chips into critical systems that are sold by foreign contractors to potentially hostile third parties.
  1. Sniffing/Key Loggers. Sniffing involves picking up data by covert or overt system during its transmission on the network. On TCP/IP networks, sniffers are usually referred to as packet sniffers because they are used to examine the packets traversing a TCP/IP network. Another method of accessing data is by installing key loggers (software or hardware) to computers, these programmes monitor keystrokes and store data which is either retrieved physically or transmitted through internet.
  2. Data Driven Attack: By Virus / Trojan / Worms. Data driven attack can be launched by following means:
  1. Computer Virus. A computer virus can be defined as a self replicating and potentially dangerous program. They can attack the boot sector or the executable files. Computer Viruses are generally classified by a variety of factors such as their target operating system, how the virus infects other systems, what programs the virus targets and infects, behavior and characteristics of the virus, and so on. The major categories are File infectors, System or Boot infectors and Multipartite.
  2. Bombs. A bomb is a piece of code that executes based upon a specific trigger, usually a certain date, time or series of actions such as a keystroke .Bombs, like their name suggests, are almost always destructive in nature and intent and are usually difficult to defend against. Unlike viruses and worms, bombs do not replicate and are usually designed to execute a single time.
  3. The Trojan Horse. It is a malicious program which is hidden within the host program. Trojan horses masquerade as benign applications when executed and like bombs do not replicate. Many of the more popular and famous Trojan horses, such as Back Orifice, provide an attacker with remote access and control of an infected system.
  4. Worm. Worms are typically small covert programs consisting of three sections replication, payload and communication which propagates itself over a network, reproducing itself speedily as it travels, infecting the target network.
  1. Denial Of Service Attacks. To flood / jam / crash / disrupt external connection of a network this is carried out by using Bots and Bot-nets. The term “Bot-net” is generally used to refer to a collection of compromised computers (zombie computers) running malwares under a common command and control infrastructure. A Bot-net maker can control the group remotely for illegal purposes. The most common purposes among them are Denial-of-service attack, Adware, Spyware, E-mail spam, Click fraud, Theft of application serial numbers, login IDs, and financial information such as credit card numbers, etc. cyber warfare climbed the news agenda earlier this year when the Estonian government was hit with major, sustained denial-of-service attacks.
  2. Spoofing. Spoofing is the act of forging parts of packets or entire packets, usually to make them appear as if they are coming from a legitimate source or to hide the actual source. Most commonly used for denial of service attacks, spoofing is also used by attackers to masquerade as someone or something else to gain access to a target system.
  1. IP Spoofing. Assume the IP address of a trusted host.
  2. DNS Spoofing. Assuming the DNS name of a trusted machine by compromising the DNS system.
  3. Phishing. Phishing is a general term for criminals creation and use of e-mails and websites designed to look like e-mails and websites of well known legitimate businesses, financial institutions, and government agencies in order to deceive Internet users into disclosing their bank and financial account information or other personal data such as usernames and passwords. The “phishers” then take that information and use it for criminal purposes, such as identity theft and fraud.
  1. Session Stealing. Also called IP Splicing / Hijacking. Here an active connection is captured by the attacker assuming the identity of an already authorised user. To be combated by the encryption of the session or the network layer using a technique like IPSec as mentioned above.


The exponential growth in information reliance and information-based technology has made Cyber Warfare (CW) a valid threat in the future. For resource-limited adversaries, CW becomes a relatively cheap and practicable alternative to full-scale war. Since CW can be waged from anywhere in the global spectrum, it offers anonymity to potential adversaries. Our ability to prosecute these attackers is very limited due to regulatory and political dilemmas. Thus, CW becomes a legitimate war-making strategy capable of inflicting a vast array of damage upon its victims.

The First War in Cyberspace. When Estonian authorities began removing a bronze statue of a World War II-era Soviet soldier from a park in Tallinn, a bustling Baltic seaport in April 07, they expected violent street protests by Estonians of Russian descent. They also knew from experience that “if there are fights on the street, there are going to be fights on the Internet,” said Hillar Aarelaid, the director of Estonia’s Computer Emergency Response Team. After all, for people in Estonia the Internet is almost as vital as running water; it is used routinely to vote, file their taxes, and, with their cell phones, to shop or pay for parking. What followed was what some describe as ‘the first war in cyberspace’, a month long campaign that forced Estonian authorities to defend their pint-size Baltic nation from a data flood that they say was set off by orders from Russia or ethnic Russian sources in retaliation for the removal of the statue. The Estonians assert that an Internet address involved in the attacks belonged to an official who works in the administration of Russia’s president, Vladimir V. Putin. The Russian government has denied any involvement in the attacks, which came close to shutting down the country’s digital infrastructure, clogging the Web sites of the president, the prime minister, Parliament and other government agencies, staggering Estonia’s biggest bank and overwhelming the sites of several daily newspapers.”It turned out to be a national security situation,” Estonia’s defense minister, Jaak Aaviksoo, said in an interview. “It can effectively be compared to when your ports are shut to the sea.”

As computer technology has become increasingly integrated into modern military organisations, military planners have come to see it as both a target and a weapon, exactly like other components and forces. Like other elements of the modern military, cyber forces are most likely to be integrated into an overall battle strategy as part of a combined arms campaign. Computer technology differs from other military assets, however, in that it is an integral component of all other assets in modern armies. From this perspective, it is the one critical component upon which many modern militaries depend, a dependence that is not lost on potential enemies.

There should be little doubt that future wars will inevitably include cyber warfare tactics. It is increasingly apparent that nations are gearing up to take advantage of the ever-increasing complexity and inter-connected nature of various national infrastructures. Countries around the world are developing and implementing cyber strategies designed to impact an enemy’s command and control structure, logistics, transportation, early warning and other critical, military functions. In addition, nations are increasingly aware that the use of cyber strategies can be a major force multiplier and equaliser. Smaller countries that could never compete in a conventional military sense with their larger neighbours can develop a capability that gives them a strategic advantage, if properly utilised.

Some people believe that cyber threats are just a concept others argue that cyber attacks are serious enough to be considered a threat to national security. Some even go to the extent of believing that an Electronic Pearl Harbour is in the making. Even though the public may not know how serious the aftermath may be, the stories of successful cyber attacks should raise some alarms.


The purpose of developing a spectrum of cyber conflict is to show the range of cyber attacks from unintentional actors such as hackers and criminals with only self-serving interests to intentional actors with intent to affect national security. This spectrum will synthesize the type of attack, intentional or unintentional actors, location of attack, and will identify what agency will have the authority to identify and track down the perpetrator. It will also identify what type of appropriate response is likely to be taken by the government against perpetrators ranging from criminal prosecution to extradition or a national policy response such as diplomatic, economic or military action against a state.

It is important to remember that any actor from a juvenile hacker to a sophisticated state intelligence service may have the capability to do extensive damage to our national information infrastructure and the capability to track and identify the perpetrator will always be extremely important regardless of the perpetrator’s intentions. Sometimes, it may be as important to identify a criminal hacker with no national security interests as it may be to prove a state sponsored cyber warfare attack. Regardless, without the close coordination between defense and law enforcement agencies, a quick and accurate response by the government will not be possible.

Type of Attack. The first discriminator in spectrum of cyber conflict is the type of attack. The type of attacks will include the following:

  1. Cyber Crime. The first level of conflict is identified as Cyber crime and ranges from illegal exploration, hacking or other computer intrusions perpetrated by an individual or group with criminal or self-motivated interests and intent.
  2. Hacktivism. The second level of cyber conflict is a relatively new phenomenon identified as “Hacktivism” and is politically motivated. Hacktivism is computerised activism and operates in the tradition of non-violent direct action and civil disobedience. It uses the same tactics of trespass and blockade from earlier social movements and applies them to the Internet. The aim of hacktivism is to draw attention to particular issues by engaging in actions that are unusual and will attract some degree of media coverage and possibly affect public or private actions.
  3. Cyber-Espionage. Cyber-espionage is the use of computer hacking in foreign intelligence operations to obtain information or access to foreign computer systems with the intent to commit espionage or have the access to commit state sponsored sabotage when necessary.
  4. Cyber-Terrorism. Cyber-terrorism is the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data, which result in violence against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents.
  5. Cyber-Warfare. Cyber warfare is defined as the use of computer intrusion techniques and other capabilities against an adversary’s information-based infrastructure to intentionally affect national security or to further operations against national security.

Intention of Cyber-Actors. The intention of actors or perpetrators of cyber attack within the spectrum of cyber conflict can be broken down into two broad categories as relates to national security. Intentional actors are individuals intentionally prosecuting attack through cyber-means to affect national security or to further operations against national security. It includes any act intended to compel an opponent to fulfill national will, executed against an opponent’s computer and software systems. Unintentional cyber actors are individuals who unintentionally attack but affect national security and are largely unaware of the international ramifications of their actions. Unintentional actors include anyone who commits cyber infiltration and penetrates the defenses of a system such that the system can be manipulated, assaulted, or raided. Unintentional actors have a large variety of motivations and intentions but do not intend on inflicting damage to national security or to further operations against national security. These actors can be categorized as hackers and although they commit cyber crime, they are not intentionally prosecuting cyber warfare. It is important to note that unintentional actors may be influenced by intentional actors but are unaware they are being manipulated to participate in cyber operations.

Location of the Perpetrator (Outside or Within India). Thirdly, it is paramount to identify the initial location of the attack and whether it is coming from within or outside India. These three factors (type of attack, intention of the perpetrator and location of perpetrator) will determine whether or not law enforcement or the military initially responds to trace back the attack and will also affect the type of retaliation taken against the perpetrator.


The ability of governments to gauge threats to critical infrastructures has traditionally been contingent upon their ability to evaluate a malicious actor’s intent and that actor’s ability to carry out a deliberate action. This was significantly easier during the Cold War, when the authorities were merely concerned with the security of physical structures. Due to the global nature of information networks, attacks can be launched from anywhere in the world, and discovering the origin of attacks remains a major difficulty, if, indeed, they are detected at all. Compared to traditional security threat analysis, which consists of analyses of actors, their intentions, and their capabilities, cyber-threats have various features that make such attacks difficult to monitor, analyse, and counteract:

  1. Anonymity of Actors The problem of identifying actors is particularly difficult in a domain where maintaining anonymity is easy and where there are time lapses between the action that an intruder takes, the intrusion itself, and the effects of the intrusion. In addition, the continuing proliferation of sophisticated computer technologies among the mainstream population makes the identification of actors increasingly difficult.
  2. Lack of Boundaries Malicious computer-based attacks are not restricted by political or geographical boundaries. Attacks can originate from anywhere in the world and from multiple locations simultaneously. Investigations that follow a string of deliberately constructed false leads can be time-consuming and resource-intensive.
  3. Speed of Development Technology develops extremely quickly. The time between the discovery of a new vulnerability and the emergence of a new tool or technique that exploits that vulnerability is getting shorter.
  4. Low Cost of Tools The technology employed in such attacks is simple to use, inexpensive, and widely available. Tools and techniques for invading computers are available on computer bulletin boards and various websites, as are encryption and anonymity tools.
  5. Automated Methods Increasingly, the methods of attack have become automated and more sophisticated, resulting in greater damage from a single attack.

These characteristics considerably hamper the ability to predict certain adverse future scenarios. Various types of uncertainties make it difficult for the intelligence community to effectively analyse the changing nature of the threat and the degree of risk involved. And these uncertainties are linked to inherent characteristics of cyber-threats – characteristics that they share with a whole set of “new” threats to security.

The end of the Cold War meant not only the end of a relatively stable bipolar world order, but also the end of the boundedness of threats. Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, a variety of “new”, and often non-military threats, such as migration, terrorism, proliferation, etc., were moved onto the security policy agendas. Even though the label “new” is not justified in most cases, many of these threats are distinctly different from Cold War security threats. The main difference is an unprecedented quality of uncertainty about them. The reason for this uncertainty is that chief among the new threats are those emanating from non-state actors using non-military means. Any combination of threat involving either non-military – or asymmetric – means and/or non-state actors poses significant difficulties for traditional approaches to intelligence collection. Linking capability to intent only works well when malefactors are clearly discernible and intelligence agencies can focus collection efforts to determine what capabilities they possess or are trying to acquire.

While an attack by another state with unconventional means and a clearly assignable agency at least makes military options feasible, non-state actors completely play outside the “box” of the Westphalian state-order. Uncertainty surrounds the identity and goals of these potential adversaries, the timeframe within which threats are likely to arise, and the contingencies that might be imposed on the state by others. Furthermore, there is uncertainty concerning the capabilities against which one must prepare, and also about what type of conflict to prepare for. In conclusion, experts are unable to predict how a cyber-attack is likely to be launched.



The state must make such disposition of its defense as will put it in the best possible condition to sustain any future war. But…these dispositions for defense must provide means of warfare suited to the character and form future wars may assume. -Giulio Douhet


  1.         It is not difficult to anticipate our accelerating transition to a knowledge-based society in the light of the leapfrogging strides in infrastructure development and networking. In the future, the rising dependence on IT would only render us more vulnerable to the very same technologies. The growing dependence is quite discernible by the burgeoning Internet user-base, and increased networking activity in the form of Local Area Network (LANs), Intranets and Extranets.
  2.         Some critical networks, especially within the government and defense are briefly mentioned below to illustrate the growth of networking in the country’s critical sectors.
  1.         Railways. Indian Railways, one of the busiest in the world, transports more than 11 million passengers daily. Country Wide Network for Computerised Enhanced Reservation and Ticketing (CONCERT) is one of the largest software projects to be implemented in India. The Railways has recently introduced online passenger reservation information services through its website.
  2.         NICNET. The government has designated the nation-wide computer communication network NICNET set up by the National Informatics Centre (NIC) as the government network. The satellite based VSAT network links about 540 district administrations, 25 state secretaries and 7 Union Territory (UT) administrations. The NICNET links spread to the Ladakh region and the Andaman, Lakshwadeep and Minicoy islands.
  3.         Military. The army has a fully automated communication network for its field forces-Army Radio Engineering Network (AREN) and Army Static Switch Communication Network (ASCON) for rearward connectivity from field forces. To serve its C4I2 functions, an Army Strategic Information System (ASTROIDS) has been set up for exchange of operational information between Army HQ, Command HQ and Corps HQ. In addition army has an Army Wide Area Network apart from the formation Local Area Networks over which various services like mail, file transfer and the intranet run. The air force has a dedicated communication network for its air defence -Air Defence Ground Environment System (ADGES) complete with radar and communication links for providing surveillance to various air defence elements. For its logistic operations there is an Integrated Material Management On-Line system (IMMOL). The navy is setting up its Navy Enterprise Wide Network (NEWN), which would connect all its ships and shore establishments. The Integrated Logistic Management System (ILMS) and Ship-Based Logistic Management System (SLMS) cater to the navy’s inventory control and logistic management.
  4.         ERNET. The Education and Research Network (ERNET) has been providing network services to Indian academia and research community since 1990. Connecting more than 750 organisations, it brings together a large cross section of universities, academic institutions, Research and Development (R&D) laboratories, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and more than 80,000 users.
  5.         National Stock Exchange (NSE). The NSE boasts of not only the first private VSAT network, but also the largest Wide Area Network (WAN) in the country. One of the few interactive VSAT based stock exchanges in the world to provide online trading of stocks; it is expected to grow to over 3,100 VSATs covering 425 cities.

Disruption of defence networks or the services of the NSE network or, jeopardising the communication infrastructure of the Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) engaged in software and IT exports would have serious national security and financial implications. And going by some reports, these are certainly not exaggerated threats. In China, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) recently conducted a network simulation exercise, where PLA soldiers simulated cyber-attacks on the telecommunications, power, finance and media sectors of Taiwan, India and South Korea. In fact, the Chinese IW centre established in 1996 lays down offensive computer attacks on enemy critical systems as its primary mission. The Chinese IW doctrine includes economic and industrial espionage, and the ‘doctoring’ of chips and software that can plant viruses or ‘trap-doors’ in enemy information systems. This is most worrisome: given the thriving piracy in Indian markets, low priced software CDs from Chinese markets sell like hot cakes. On the western front, Pakistani hacker groups like ‘Death to India’, ‘Kill India’, ‘Dr Nuker’ and ‘G Force Pakistan’ have been consistently targeting Indian websites. A number of anti-India websites have also surfaced displaying anti-India propaganda and instructions for hacking into Indian websites.

Notwithstanding the Chinese and Pakistani designs on IW, the threat from terrorists or non-state actors is a cause of greater worry. Cyber-terrorism (convergence of cyberspace and terrorism) offers ideal opportunities for terrorists to carry out remote attacks-safely, anonymously, and without the use of explosives. Terrorist propaganda through Internet websites (for e.g. websites of terrorist organisations like the Hezbollah and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) can be accessed at www.hizbollah.org, www.eelam.com) and increasing use of satellite-phones, electronic-mail and instant messaging for communications have added to the woes of the intelligence agencies worldwide. In the recent terrorist strike at Red Fort by the Lashkar-e-Taiba group, the militants were found to have used a cyber café in North Delhi as a communication link for the operation.

The Indian government needs to address these concerns. Almost at the same time as the Chinese attacks, there has been also the instance of the Swedish hacker breaking into the email accounts of a few of our foreign missions. As usual, our national cyberspace agenda was reactive rather than proactive. A comprehensive critical information infrastructure protection policy is yet to be framed; the focus to look at cybersecurity from a national security standpoint is still far away; and the revised IT Act is yet to be passed by Parliament.


In the wake of increasing security breaches, a growing awareness of Cyber Security is beginning to set in. India became only the 12th country in the world to enact the cyber-laws and pass the IT Act 2000, which besides granting legal sanctity to electronic documents, covers a broad range of legal issues. The Ministry of Information Technology has set up an IT security centre at Hyderabad, in line with the American Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) as part of a multi-pronged approach to control cyber-crime.

The National Association of Software Services and Companies, (NASSCOM) a nodal agency for promoting IT in the country, has on its part set up a National Cyber-Cop Committee comprising members from the government, IT experts and the police, to address the growing threat to cyber security in the country. NASSCOM, with the Indian government has also laid the foundation for the required legal framework through the proposed Amendments to the Indian IT Act of 2000 which includes laws and policies concerning data security and cyber crimes and the Indian Copyright Act of 1972 which deals with copyright issues in computer programs.

The Central Bureau (CBI) of investigation is also tuning itself to counter the cyber threat. The cyber crime cell established by the CBI since April 2000, acts as an international contact point in India for resolving cyber-crime cases. The cell has a committed core team, which interacts with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Interpol and police forces of other countries. The CBI academy has also introduced cyber-related training programmes for police officers of state police forces.

The Ministry of Information Technology decided in 2003 to establish a $20 million Internet security center in New Delhi. The center addresses computer security incidents, publishes alerts, and promotes information and training. Software Technology Parks India (STPI)-an autonomous body of the government-has a stake in the proposed center. The Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) have been at the forefront of information security technologies. The Networking and Internet Software Group of the C-DAC, for example, is working on the development of “core network security technologies,” which include C-DAC’s Virtual Private network, crypto package, and prototype of e-commerce applications. FIRST-India (Forum for Incident Response and Security Teams) is a non-profit organization for facilitating “trusted interaction amongst teams from India conducting incident response and cyber security tasks. Membership is open to private and public sector organizations in India, including the Defense Public Sector Undertakings.

The defence forces on their part have adopted information warfare doctrines, which include cyber security as a vital element. The Indian military is investing significant resources to develop information technologies and to train technologically capable forces. The National Defense Academy (NDA) in June 2002 graduated its first group of students earning the degree of Bachelor of Science in Computer Science. The three-year course is consistent with the latest trends in electronic warfare and growing computerization in the armed forces. Private companies have developed programs to integrate their technologies more directly into the defense sector’s needs. Further, the Defense Research and Development Organization has initiated several programs for the development of critical technologies and systems under government auspices, including chip development.