Stanislavski’s Method of Acting

Konstantin Stanislavski, (born Konstantin Alekseyev, and sometimes spelt Constantin Stanislavsky), was 14 years old when he first set foot on the stage that his parents owned in 1877. His love of the theatre blossomed throughout his life, leading him to become one of the world’s most influential theatre practitioners to date. His work in the field of theatrical rehearsal techniques made him a household name for drama students worldwide. He published many books and guides designed to give drama students an insight into “realism”, including ‘An Actor Prepares’ and ‘Building a Character’, which outline various famous rehearsal methods designed to allow an actor to fully relate to their character, to the point that they are not just pretending to be them, but actually living their lives. He argued that the actor should “Love the art in yourself, not yourself in the art” [1], looking for the emotion within themselves as opposed to the words in the script.

Stanislavski’s pioneering vision for the theatre was that characters should be believable, and the storyline should focus on the emotion portrayed, engaging the audience through means such as empathy. He argued that anything put forward on the stage should be an accurate account of real life, a thought which derived from his distaste for the melodramatic theatre he had grown up with. However, Stanislavski is one of several famous theatre practitioners, all with a completely different concept of what theatre should be. For example, Bertolt Brecht put forward the theory of ‘Epic Theatre’, which taught that the audience should always be alienated from the action onstage, unable to identify with the characters, but rather being left with questions to ask themselves. He believed the audience couldn’t possibly empathise with the characters onstage because there were so many individual differences in society itself- “society cannot share a common communication system so long as it is split into warring factions” (Brecht, 1949, paragraph 55[2]). Brecht wanted the audience to leave the theatre debating their morals. Another prestigious theatrical practitioner is Antonin Artaud, who argued that any performance should deeply affect the audience. In order to achieve this, he used non-naturalistic lighting and sound to create a disturbing atmosphere. Artaud wished his audience to leave the theatre having changed within themselves. With three such different aims from each practitioner, it is difficult to be sure whether any of them had a particularly valid point. All three theories are widely respected, but each contrasts and challenges the next, meaning that, in order to believe in one of them, you must rule out the others as valid.

These conflicting theories became the beginning of the main ideas behind this project. I wanted to know whether there was a solid way to prove whether Stanislavski’s theories are affective to the audience in terms of creating a more realistic performance than one with normal rehearsal, or indeed rehearsal methods devised by other practitioners. To be able to determine this, I needed to conduct deeper research into Stanislavski’s system.

The system itself is deep and intricately detailed, with many different aspects as to what Stanislavski considered a ‘good performance’. However, some points are evidently more significant to him than others. According to the online Encyclopaedia Britannia [3], the main features are ‘Given Circumstances and the Magic If’, and ‘Emotional Memory’. ‘Units and Objectives’ is also a major feature of the system, so these are the three aspects I chose to refine my research to in order to establish a better understanding of Stanislavski’s method of acting.

‘Given Circumstances and the Magic If’

Stanislavski said that “what is important to me is not the truth outside myself, but the truth within myself” [4], meaning that anything put forward on the stage must be true. He recognised this idea was a potential issue because all acting is, essentially, a lie. He therefore said that all actors should be as true to themselves as they can while playing a part. The idea behind Given Circumstances is that actors accept that, with the script of a play, they are given a set of circumstances which they must adhere to in order to create the storyline. Given circumstances can relate to either the character or the play itself, and they include things like character’s age, gender, social class, and the play’s time period, setting and social/historical/political implications. In order for an actor to give a true performance, Stanislavski put a massive emphasis on the importance of research into the given time period or situation so that the performer would truly understand their role. He taught that the research needs to be completed until an actor can fully flesh out his character, and answer any questions given to them about their character’s parentage, childhood, and life events, even if these aren’t mentioned in the script. Once the Given Circumstances had been realised, Stanislavski suggested that the actors utilised a linked aspect of his theory, called the ‘Magic If’, in order to deal with them. The ‘Magic If’ is a technique where the actor asks himself “given the circumstances already decided by the playwright, if I was this character, and I was in this situation, how would I react?”. In his book ‘An Actor Prepares’, Stanislavski talked about the professor using the example of pretending to be a tree. “Say to yourself: “I am I; but if I were an old oak tree, set in certain surrounding conditions, what would I do?” and decide where you are… in whatever place affects you most” (Stanislavski, 1937, p65[5]). Stanislavski asked that his students allow their imaginations to flourish through techniques such as Given Circumstances and the Magic If, to construct deeper, more realistic performances.

‘Emotional Memory’

Another technique which was born from Stanislavski’s belief that acting must be real is Emotional Memory, sometimes known as Affective Memory. Shelley Winters, an example of a famous actress with ultimate belief in the Stanislavski System, said that as an actor you must be willing to “act with your scars” [6], or in layman’s terms, be willing to allow your inner emotions and past experiences to show through. This is essentially the main terms of Emotional Memory, which requires the actor to draw on previous personal experiences which resulted in a similar emotion to which their character is experiencing. Once the actor has identified the experience, they are encouraged to allow the emotion they felt once again take over their mind and body, reinstating the context and mind-set until the emotion is real. The emotion must then seamlessly be applied to the script or character, as Stanislavski felt this would make the performance more believable because the emotion is true to the actor. Peter Oyston, founding Dean of Drama at the Victorian College of the Arts and regular teacher/director at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, created a rehearsal method specifically designed to enhance the feelings from memories. He published this, and other methods referring to Stanislavskian techniques, in a DVD documentary called “How to use the Stanislavski System” (2004). The Emotional Memory section can be viewed on YouTube [7], and teaches the student to remember a time when they personally felt an emotion which shadows or parallels that required from the text. They are encouraged to talk about the situation they are remembering out loud, until the emotion takes over their minds and bodies. Then, they must seamlessly transfer their speech from their own recollections to the script given to them, transferring the emotions at the same time.

‘Units and Objectives’

One of the most prominent aspects of Stanislavski’s method is his idea that any character in any play has a ‘Super-Objective’ throughout the action; an aim or driving force which sustains throughout the play. Stanislavski taught that this Super-Objective must stay in each actor’s mind throughout their rehearsal and performance, and that even though it may not be stated, or even obvious, they must take it upon themselves to research and discover it. Once this has been accomplished, he felt that the script could then be broken down into smaller Objectives, which would change several times throughout the piece as the plot deepened. Each Objective must be a verb, in order to be an ‘active objective’. He asked actors to split their script into Units and Objectives. Most pieces of drama are split by the playwright into a series of scenes and acts, allowing the action to move in time or setting, but Stanislavski found that an objective could run through and overlap into different scenes, or change very suddenly in the middle of an act. He therefore introduced the concept of Units, which are another way of dividing up a play- each unit should contain one objective.

The diagram above outlines the intricate detail of the aspects of Units, Objectives, and Super-Objectives. The Throughline of Action is the aim in a character’s mind throughout the entirety of the play, which culminates in the Super-Objective. Meanwhile, each character has several different Objectives which are split between the Units the actors devised for the script. These Objectives can take the character to many different places, but their Super-Objective will always remain the same.

Furthermore, the Objectives themselves are equally as detailed. Stanislavski said that each Objective could be broken down into the Aim, the Obstacle and the Action. The aim is what the character is trying to achieve in that particular unit. The obstacle is something which stops or restricts them from fulfilling their aim, and the action is the steps the character takes in order to avoid or overcome the obstacle.

Stanislavski accepted that it is impossible for a play to achieve a smooth finish where objectives are concerned because often, the action takes place off stage. The characters come and go, and the time changes, so we as an audience cannot witness the whole story. Stanislavski said that in order to overcome this, actors must always be consciously aware of their Super-Objective.

A familiar example of this aspect of the Stanislavskian Theory is Shakespeare’s story of Romeo and Juliet. Romeo’s Super-Objective is to experience true love. He begins the play with the objective of marrying Rosaline, and this continues to be his objective until the Unit shifts at the Capulet party. Here, Romeo’s objective becomes to find out more about Juliet, and later becomes to marry her. Towards the end of the party, however, Romeo speaks with Juliet’s nurse, who tells him that “her mother is the Lady of the house” -that Juliet is a Capulet(Shakespeare, 1973, p. 910 [8]). This provides the obstacle, since Romeo’s family, the Montagues, have an ancient feud with the Capulets. Romeo then takes on a new action, which is to overcome the feud between the families, even if it means the couple have to lie about it. Romeo doesn’t manage to fully achieve his Super-Objective, because he never experiences the simplicity of love he was looking for- both he and Juliet have to die in order to truly be together.

Of all the aspects of Stanislavski’s method, these three prove to be the most popular among modern day performers.

Having researched the key aspects of Stanislavski’s system, I devised a way to be able to assess the effectiveness of them on a live performance by young actors, as this would allow me to establish whether the method does in fact help to produce a more believable performance. I decided to conduct an experiment into the effectiveness of Stanislavski’s system. I decided to utilise my contacts at a local youth drama group, which is made up of young actors and actresses aged between 11 and 17 years old. In order for the experiment to be a fair test, I determined to split them equally into two groups, and give each group the same scenario to work with. I planned to leave group one, the control group, to rehearse to their own methods, while conducting group two’s rehearsal processes myself, giving them tasks similar to those set by Stanislavski to his own pupils. After the groups had had the same period of time to rehearse, I wanted to invite an audience to watch their performances. The audience were to be given a questionnaire after the performances, asking which group’s interpretation of the scenario they found more convincing and realistic. I intended to film both sets of rehearsal processes in order to put together a short documentary. The results of the audience questionnaire were intended to ascertain whether Stanislavski’s rehearsal methods have a real influence on making modern day performance more realistic.

In order for this experiment to work, I firstly had to create an idea. Originally, I devised a script which revolved around the issue of teenage pregnancy, which is a growing concern in today’s society. The script included four gender specific characters, and I intended to have both groups perform the same piece; one using Stanislavski’s techniques, and the others using generic rehearsal processes. Having written the short play, and talked briefly to the children at the theatre, it became apparent that there was more interest in the workshop than I had expected. Another problem with using a script would have been that the audience would have watched the same piece twice, and would be comparing the actor’s individual performances as opposed to the believability of the pieces. Since it would have been unfair of me to cast the roles, I instead decided to take a different approach in order to include everyone. I devised a scenario, again based around a teenage pregnancy, that each group would be able to use as the core of their piece of drama. They would then devise the rest of their plays alone. This meant that each group could incorporate a flexible amount of participants, and ensured two unique, original performances.

With my idea in mind, I next needed to devise some Stanislavski-based rehearsal techniques for my group to use during their preparation for the production. Keeping the themes of ‘Given Circumstances and the Magic If’, ‘Emotional Memory’, and ‘Units and Objectives’ in mind, I devised three rehearsal techniques specifically tailored to Stanislavski’s ideals. With these techniques devised, I had to actually carry out the rehearsal and performances. In order to do this, I would need a space, two groups of actors, a party of responsible adults with CRB checks and an audience. I contacted the chairman of the theatre and booked myself a studio performance room for Saturday the 3rd of April. I then sent out letters to the actors involved with the Nonentities Youth Theatre. The letters outlined the project and the experimental side of the day, offered the chance to look at the technical side of theatre, and asked for a response. I received 18 positive responses back, which was many more than the original 12 participants I had in mind, making the scenario idea far more usable. I then had to split the actors into two different groups, a control group, who would direct themselves, and the experimental group, who I would direct using Stanislavski’s methods. The groups needed to be equally weighted with talent, as it was important to make this experiment as fair as possible by not allowing acting ability to throw it. I therefore split the actors into groups myself, aiming to balance the ages in each group while placing responsible actors I could trust to work independently in the control group, and actors open to co-operation and willing to listen in the Stanislavski group. The Independent Variable of this study was ‘whether Stanislavski’s methods were applied to rehearsals’, and the Dependant Variable was ‘whether the performance was more believable based on the rehearsal method used’. My hypothesis was: “The techniques used in rehearsal will have an affect on the performance given”.

I experienced my first problem of the day when the actors arrived in the morning. Shortly before the workshop was to take place, a letter had been sent to all members of the youth theatre outlining the need for a new leader and the cancellation of sessions until another letter was sent out. It became apparent that many of the actors who had wished to be a part of the workshop had assumed that it, too, was cancelled, so the final number of actors I had to work with was just 10. Although I had to adjust the group list, the smaller number of participants made the day as a whole more intimate, and the group sizes more manageable, so I feel it was a beneficial circumstance. Once everybody had signed in, I conducted a brief warm-up, asking all members to think of the way different characters moved and spoke in real life, asking them to act believably, not just as caricatures. I then split up the actors into groups, and chose the two girls who I felt would be most capable of acting the part of the pregnant teenager. I asked both groups to create a piece of drama focussing around the pregnancy that would last between 10 and 15 minutes, and I gave each group a list of criteria that they must adhere to, including aspects such as using the younger members in the younger roles, including a number of monologues from different characters, and that they must write down the decisions made in early rehearsal. I told the control group that they were allowed to use music, and dramatic techniques such as physical theatre and freeze frames, while the Stanislavski group had to endeavour to make their characters and circumstances applicable to real life, and were told not to use out-of-place techniques like freeze framing. The video was set to record as the groups split up into two different rooms, and I allowed the control group to keep to themselves for the majority of the day, while I worked with the Stanislavski group, asking them to use my previously-prepared rehearsal techniques.

The first technique I gave them was designed to support ‘Given Circumstances and the Magic If’. I asked each group to use the first stages of rehearsal to create mind-maps around the pieces of drama. Whilst the control group’s map outlined the storyline, the Stanislavski group were asked to spend an hour and a half fleshing out their characters, and the relationships and links between them. They gave each character a name and an age, they wrote about their belief’s and opinions, and decided upon how their characters met. Each actor developed a detailed history for their character, pulling from personal experience and their imaginations to create steady backgrounds. These are aspects relating to ‘Given Circumstances and the Magic If’ because they invite the participants to firstly realise the Circumstances the script gives them, and secondly to flesh out their characterisation by putting their characters in different situations through use of the Magic If.

The second technique I devised related to ‘Emotion Memory’. I used this technique when working with the actress playing the pregnant girl. We applied it to the scene in which she is told that the test is positive. I asked her to think about a time when she felt lost, and perhaps didn’t have anybody she could talk to about it because nobody had been in that position before her. She talked of a time when her parents were going through a messy divorce, and she felt cut of from the both of them. She spoke openly and freely, and answered my questions honestly. As time went by, she was drawn further and further into her memory and the emotions that were present at that time, so that when I finally asked her to begin talking from her character’s perspective, her acting became real. She didn’t need to fake the tears, because she was filled with the emotion her character was filled with.

The third technique was designed to compliment ‘Units and Objectives’. Once the actors had created their storyline, I asked them to divide it up into scenes, so that it was as close to a normal scripted piece of drama as possible. We talked about each of their characters, and what their Super-Objectives would be. The actors decided upon everyone’s objectives as a group, which brought a deeper level of understanding to the piece. They decided that the father’s Super-Objective would be to protect his children, while Rosie, the pregnant daughter, aimed to face her future head on. I then asked each actor to divide up the play into their own Units, focussing on the shifts in emotion. This process proved difficult for the younger members of the group, so the group as a whole helped them to identify their Units. There proved a great variety in the amount of Units in the piece for each character; while the pregnant girl had almost one per scene, the father had only two. Furthermore, the switch between Units for him came suddenly in the middle of his monologue, which was right at the end of the piece- before then his character had wanted the same thing throughout. I asked the group to physically improvise the scenes they had written about, and to stop the action when they encountered their obstacles. Once they had all found their obstacles, they were asked to continue acting while finding a way to overcome this obstacle- their action. I then asked them if they had noticed the other actor’s actions in the scene, so that everybody was aware of the decisions their group was making.This in-depth workshop class on ‘Units and Super-Objectives’ made the young actors aware and knowledgeable in the field, while also allowing them to know their characters inside out by knowing what they want, and how they might go about achieving it.

A couple of hours before the performances were scheduled to begin, I took notes on the rehearsal processes of both groups. The control group had included an omniscient narrator who could stop the action and introduce new characters. The narrator sat in the middle of the piece throughout the majority of the action, until the final scene where he became an involved character. A narrator is generally used to create a sense of dramatic irony, where the audience gain knowledge that the characters don’t yet know. However, this type of narration is rarely set within the piece itself, more often a voice over or such like. It is also unrealistic that the narrator, who is generally removed from and neutral to the action, suddenly become ‘real life’ and jump into the scene. The group also used a split-screen technique to enable them to show two different apartments at the same time, which is effective to the audience but unrealistic, as while action is playing out in one space, the characters in the other must be frozen. This creation of ‘freeze-framing’ is difficult to hold for long periods of time, and does not occur in a genuine situation. Another technique they used was audience-participation, where one member of their cast sat in the audience until the final moments of the play, where she rose, walked across the stage, took out her mobile and called the police. I concluded that the control group had included various aspects of performance which were designed to make the action more interesting to the audience, and add the element of surprise, but were not designed to look or feel realistic. They had spent only half an hour mind-mapping their decisions, and talked about their other decisions while physically rehearsing.

The Stanislavski group spent an hour and a half developing their characters, and another hour developing their storyline, so they ended up with four A3 sheets of paper detailing their entire performance. They used only one location, the teenager’s bedroom, so that there was never a set change needed, because it would interrupt the storyline and distract the audience. The group’s monologues were delivered to a person, as opposed to the audience, so that the barrier between the audience and the characters stayed strong. Had the actors been talking to the audience, their speeches would have seemed less realistic.

After five hours of rehearsal, it was time for the final performances. Each actor had been asked to invite some family members or friends, and members of the theatre came along to participate too. Each audience also included the actors from the other group, making the final audience figure 19 members. I watched the performances, but didn’t participate in the questionnaire, as I would have been biased toward the Stanislavski group. I introduced the pieces, and talked about the work the actors had undertaken over the day. The audience weren’t told which group was the control group, and which group was the Stanislavski group, until both performances had finished, meaning that they couldn’t be biased in favour of Stanislavski either. I also asked them to be open minded, and not answer the questionnaire in favour of the production their child was associated with, telling them they were judging my direction, not the individual actor’s talent. The audience watched the control group first, and were given time to fill out their questionnaires while we set up the stage for the Stanislavski group. After both performances had finished, I thanked everybody for taking part and collected in the questionnaires.

Having extrapolated my results, it became apparent that there was a general feeling that the Stanislavski production was more believable. When asked “was the main storyline believable”, 66% of the audience thought that the control group’s piece was “a dramatised and exaggerated version of real life”, while 95% thought that the Stanislavski group’s piece “could credibly happen in real life”. Having worked extensively with the pregnant character from the Stanislavski group, I was pleased that 42% of the audience thought that she portrayed the pregnancy flawlessly, while a further 42% felt that she portrayed it very well, while in the control group, these percentages combined only reached 44%. I asked the audience to rate how believable they felt the overall performances were, and 56% rated the control group’s performance at an 8/10 or higher, while 94% rated the Stanislavski performance at an 8/10 or higher. Overall, it is evident that the Stanislavski group’s performance was more widely believed.

It is important to note that the effectiveness of the performances given may not be entirely down to the methods of rehearsal used. Although I tried to make the experiment as fair as possible by attempting to make the rehearsal methods the only variable, other extraneous variables may have had an affect on the final results. For example, since there were fewer participants than planned, I had to shuffle the groups a little. This meant that the control group had two of the younger members in their piece, while the Stanislavski group had four older members. The younger members of the theatre are less experienced and therefore don’t have as many creative ideas to bring to the mix. It is also apparent that almost half of the audience were family members of the younger actors, meaning that they are liable to vote in favour of their child’s piece as they are proud to see them on stage. Although I asked the audience to keep an open mind, they may have been bias towards their family or friends, and this is a factor which could have affected the final results.

At the beginning of my project, I asked myself “What is Stanislavski’s Method of acting, and how far has it influenced modern day performance?” Having undertaken a considerable amout of research on Stanislavski and his methods, it became easier for me to define them, and to easily distinguish the difference between his teachings, and those of other practitioners. I found that Stanislavski’s method of acting is largely based around the actor’s own interpretation of the character, aiming to keep the emotion real. I found that Stanislavski wanted the audience to connect with both the storyline and the characters, and he achieved this connection by keeping th acting real, thus allowing the audience to connect empathetically. Having created an experiment to see whether Stanislavski did indeed influence modern day performance, I found that the audience were effected by the group that used the Stanislavskian rehearsal techniques, so much so that one person wrote on the bottom of their questionnaire that their performance “actually brought tears to my eyes”. While researching, I came across a website [9] where Jeni Whittaker (1999) argues that “Stanislavski is rightly called the ‘father of modern theatre’, his System of acting became the backbone of twentieth century theatre craft. Nearly all other practitioners use him as a starting point, either to build from or to react against”. This substantiates my initial hypothesis that Stanislavski has a major influence on modern day theatre. In conclusion, I feel that Stanislavski has an extended influence on modern day theatre. Audiences of today wish not to be challenged or alienated, but to see characters they can relate to on the stage, and the majority of theatre today follows this teaching, whether the director realises he is adhering to Stanislavski’s theory or otherwise. Furthermore, when watching two similar pieces of drama, it became apparent that the audience are more drawn towards that which used Stanislavski’s rehearsal techniques because the characters and storyline were portrayed in a true to life manner. I found that Stanislavski is not only used in theatre, as many famous screen actors choose his methods when getting into character. I feel that the world is exposed to Stanislavski’s teachings more than it realises, and therefore the influence of Stanislavski on modern day acting is significantly higher than I believed when I began the project.

REFERENCES:

  • Source unknown, Stanislavski.
  • Brecht (1949). ‘A Short Organum for the Theatre’, paragraph 55.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (2010). ‘Stanislavsky method’. Encyclopædia Britannica Online; Retrieved February 22, 2010, from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/563178/Stanislavsky-method
  • Source unknown, Stanislavski.
  • Stanislavski (1937). ‘An Actor Prepares’, (reprinted 1988) United Kingdom: Methuen Drama LTD.
  • Harry Governick for TheatrGROUP. (1992). An Interview with Shelly Winters; Retrieved February 22, 2010, from http://www.theatrgroup.com/Shelley
  • Peter Oyston, ‘How to use the Stanislavski System’ DVD(2004). Retrieved (via YouTube) April 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmhggaEuJj8
  • Shakespeare (1973). ‘Romeo and Juliet’, from ‘The Complete Works of Shakespeare- The Alexander Text’. London and Glasgow: Collins.
  • Jeni Whittaker for DramaWorks. ‘Stanislavski through Practice’ (1999) Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.dramaworks.co.uk/stanislavski.html

Why Do People Need Faith In God?

We have known about God since a very long time. We know that in Islam God name is Allah, Hinduism has many Gods and some of them are Ganesh, Vishnu and Brahma, in Hebrew God name is Yahweh, in Christianity God name is Jehovah, Chinese’s – NGod is Yang Yin, one of Greek’s Gods is Zeus and so on. We all know it, but we don’t know why in different religions God has different names and why some religions have many Gods. May be we never think about it. So my research question is why in different religions God has different names and why some religions have many Gods. In this essay I try to find out answer to these questions.

In the Christian Religion, there is only One God, who is a Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Jesus was Jew hence He believed and worshipped the only true God Jehovah and always tried to please Him he prayed to Him and loved Him John 17:3 states this means everlasting life the taking in knowledge of YOU (prayer to Jehovah by Jesus) and the One you sent forth (Jesus) He never referred to Himself as God He never said the Holy Spirit was God. You see taking in knowledge of Jesus does not make Him God, but faith in Him is requirement for life. God cannot die but Jesus died for our sins and if we do not respect Jesus new role as Messiah we cannot gain life everlasting. Jehovah is God; Jesus is the son of God as stated in scripture. [1]

In the Jewish Religion, there is only one God, HaShem (The Name). In deference to Judaism, God is the correct spelling. [2]

In the Islamic Religion, there is only one God, Allah, and Muhammed is his prophet. Allah has no intermediaries, no spouse, no children, and thus, Allah is ONE. In the Sikh Religion, there is only One, Hari; who has many names and many forms. [3]

In the Buddhist Religion, there are many Buddhas, but not all buddhists are deists or worshippers of Idols of Buddha. The first Buddha to attain enlightenment is Gautama Buddha, who is worshipped as a God in some strands of Buddhism. The Dalai Llama, for example comes from Tibetan Buddhism, which has deities. Buddha was a Hindu, so he would have been familiar with the Hindu deities. [4]

In the Hindu Religion, there is one Formless God and a trimurti of Creator, Preserver and Destroyer Gods. There are many other gods and consorts. In the Parsee Religion, Zoroastrianism, there is Ormazd, sometimes called “Ahura Mazda” or simply “Mazda”, the most well-known of their Gods. [5]

There were other deities. In Confucianism, there is Ti’en (Heaven). Also known as Shang Di(The Lord on High). Ancestors are also worshipped. Taoism has numerous deities. Shinto has numerous deities. Jainism has numerous deites. Africans didn’t have a religion, they had Spirituality from which ALL religions began, had Gods such as Isis, Horus, Heru, Ausar,Osirus; Mayan religion has many deities, Ancient Greek and Roman religions all had myths for example Yesus, Thor, Zeus, Mercury. The American Indians had their deities, and the Australian Aboriginals had their Gods and the Dreamtime. There were Norse Gods, Scandinavian Gods, Celtic Gods, Druidic Gods, along with nature religions also. Where ever there is mankind, there you will find worshippers of the Divine. [6]

So, from this text I understand that many religions have just one God. But in some religions people believe that we more Gods and that there have certain destination. But why, maybe people were easier to believe in something, such as a God to explain different phenomena, phenomena of life or explain some occurring moments in the life of mankind.

However, why just this names? Firstly, we need to know what the name is. In the ancient world names were thought to be extremely powerful and to act, in some ways, as a separate manifestation of a person or deity. [7] Well, I think that God hasn’t particular name, so people named God like that, because they were based on their imagines about him. For example, Muslims, adherents of Islam named God Allah, because it is an Arabic word meaning “The God”. Greeks imagined that Zeus is the “Father of Gods”; he is the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology, so for Greek people Zeus is the main God, because sky is impersonation of world.

But why we, people need faith in God? Faith is our motivation to fulfill our purpose. Faith and work are dependent upon one another for existence. They’re like energy and matter, Yin and yang, opposites, but complements.

Without faith it’s impossible to please God [8] , so our relationship with the Lord is dependent on it. Faith is what brings the things God has provided for us from the spiritual realm into the physical realm [9] . Our faith is the victory that enables us to overcome the world [10] . Everything the Lord does for us is accessed through faith. Human faith can only believe what it can see, taste, hear, smell, or feel; it’s limited to the five senses. Using natural human faith, we can sit in a chair we’ve never sat in and believe it will hold us up. We fly in airplanes when we don’t fully understand how they work, and we don’t know the pilot, but we trust that everything will be okay. That takes human faith, which God gave to every person. Yet when it comes to God, we have to believe things that we cannot see. You haven’t seen God or the devil. You haven’t seen heaven or hell. You haven’t seen sin; therefore, you wouldn’t know what you would look like if your sins were taken away. However, you have to believe in all these things to be born again. How can you believe in things you can’t see? The answer is that you can’t believe in invisible things with human faith. You need God’s supernatural faith. [11]

Sometimes when a person is bad, when he lost everything, he has only faith, belief in something good. We have a lot of good thoughts to believe, but the best of them is the thought of God. In some situations, only faith in God can help keep the kindness, confidence in our heart and move on.

In concluded, why in some religions have many Gods? I think in some religions people can’t prove or can’t explain some phenomenon in life, in nature, so, their think that it all happens because of Gods. For example, if the sky shines for lightning, that gods were angry at someone or at something or if the sun shines brightly, it means that the gods have good mood and they were shone by pleasure because of their eternal, divine life. So people explain all this phenomena. Fine, I have answer for this question, but I didn’t answer the question, “why in different religions God has different names?” I think because different people have a different worldview, so there have different beliefs to God, and there have different religions. If people have similar worldview, similar beliefs and have different religion I think it is wrong, because if all there thinks are similar, they don’t need different religions, and they can be one extended religion. I think people need to believe to different Gods names, because they need to prove that their thoughts are different from other. So, I think exactly because of that in different religions God has different names.

Insider Trading Regualtion

Insider trading is the trading of a corporation’s stock or other securities (e.g. stock options or bonds) by individuals  related to the company with potential access to non-public information about the company which is not disclosed to general public generally. In most countries trading by corporate insiders such as directors officers key employees and large shareholders may be legal, if this trading is done in a way that does not take advantage of non-public information which ultimately harm the investor’s confidence.  However insider trading  to refer to a practice in which an insider or a related party generally member of the company trades based on material non-public information obtained during the performance of the insider’s duties at the corporation, or otherwise in breach of a fiduciary or other relationship of trust and confidence or where the non-public information was misappropriated from the company. The illegal kind of Insider Trading is the trading in a security (selling or buying a stock) based on material information that is not available to the general public .  It is prohibited by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) because it is unfair and would destroy securities markets by destroying investor confidence.

DEFINITION OF INSIDER

“Insider” means any person who is or was connected with the company or is deemed to have been connected with the company and is reasonably expected to have access, by virtue of such connection, to unpublished price sensitive information in respect of securities of the company , or who has received or has had access to such unpublished price sensitive information. “Unpublished price sensitive information” means any information which relates to the following matter or is of concern , directly or indirectly , to a company, and is not generally known or published by such company for general information , but which is published or known , is likely to materially affect the price of securities of that company in the market.

The following unpublished information can be considered as price sensitive:

1)  Financial results of the company

2)  Intended declaration of dividend

3)  Issue of hares by way of public rights, bonus, etc

4) Any major expansion plans or execution of new projects

5)  Amalgamation , mergers and takeovers

6)  Disposal of the whole or substantially the whole of the undertaking

7)  Such other information as may affect the earning of the company

8)  Any changes in policies , plans or operations of the company

Connected persons include the following

1)  Director  of the company

2)  Person deemed to be director of the company

3)  Person occupying the position as an officer  or an employees of the company

4)  Person holding  a position involving a professional or business relationship between himself and the company and who may reasonably be expected to have an access to unpublished price sensitive information relating to that company

Therefore a company insider is someone who has access to the important information about a company that affects its stock price or might influence investors’ decisions. This is called material information. A public company, if it is smart, limits the number of people who have access to material information and, therefore, are considered insiders. This is done for a couple of reasons. First, they want to limit the likelihood that anyone will “leak” the information. Second, being an insider means being subject to severe limits on when you can trade in the company stock, usually only the middle month of each quarter. The company’s senior management are insiders. So are some of the financial analysts. The top sales people usually also are insiders, although a regional sales manager who only sees his or her own region’s results may not be one. The individuals in Investor Relations and/or Public Relations who prepare the public announcements also are insiders. If the company is developing a new product that could be a big seller, the key people in the Research & Development team would also be considered insiders, provided the information they have is material. Other individuals who are not employees, but with whom the company needs to share material information, are also insiders. This list could include brokers, bankers, lawyers, etc.

WHY INSIDER TRADING

Insider trading may be attempted to

1)  Benefit the company through unethical purchase and sale of the company’s shares by withholding price sensitive information , and

2)  Benefit the individuals indulging in this unethical practice

CATEGORIES OF INSIDERS

These are persons connected with the company having access to price sensitive information. Broadly then can be

a)  Primary insider e.g. directors, stock exchange, merchant bankers, registrars, brokers of the company, top executives, auditors, bank etc

b)  Secondary insider i.e dealer, agents and other employes etc

c)  Others having acess to price sensitive information due to their proximity with the company

WHY CONTROL INSIDER TRADING

Basic objective of controlling insider trading is to protect investors . other related objective are protecting the interest and reputation of the company, maintaining confidence in stock exchange operations, maintaining public confidence in the financial system as a whole.

SIGNIFICANT PENALITIES

Sections 10(b) and 14(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 give the SEC the authority to seek a court order requiring violators to give back their trading profits. The SEC can also ask the court to impose a penalty of up to three times the profit the violators realized from their insider trading. In addition to the financial penalties, there are criminal penalties. Many now feel those penalties are not strong enough and are working to increase them substantially. A bill in the US Senate, for instance, seeks to make defrauding shareholders a felony punishable by up to 10 years in prison. A penalty up to Rs 5 lakh can be imposed on an insider who indulge in dealing, communicating or counseling on matters relating to insider trading.

PROHIBITION ON DEALING, COMMUNICATING OR COUNSELLING ON MATTERS RELATING TO INSIDER TRADING

It has been laid down that no insider shall

1)  Either on his own behalf or on behalf of nay other person, deal in securities of a company listed on any stock exchange on the basis of any unpublished price sensitive information; or

2)  Communicate any unpublished price sensitive information to any person, with or without his request for such information, expect as required in the ordinary course of business or under any law; or

3)  Counsel or procure any other person to deal in securities of any company on the basis of unpublished price sensitive information.

 

INVESTIGATION  INTO THE AFFAIR OF INSIDERS

In case SEBI, on the basis of written information in its possession, is of the opinion that it is necessary to investigate and inspect the books of accounts, other records and documents of an insider, it may appoint an investigating authority

a)  To investigate into the complaints received from investors, intermediaries or any other person on any matter having a bearing on the allegations of insider trading; and

b)  To investigate  knowledge or information in its possession to protect the interest of investors in securities against breach of these regulations

SECURITY ANALYSIS AND INSIDER TRADING

The analysts of security gather and compile information and they talk to corporate officers and other insiders and issue recommendations to traders. Thus their activities might easily cross legal lines if they are not careful about it .  The CFA Institute has quoted in its code of ethics that analysts should make every effort to make all reports available to all the broker’s clients on a timely basis. Analysts should never report material nonpublic information, except in an effort to make that information available to the general public. Moreover analysts’ reports may contain a variety of information that is collected without violating insider trading laws.

EFFECTS OF INSIDER TRADING

THE EFFECT OF STOCK MARKET INSIDER TRADING

A distinction has to be made between trading by insiders and trading by insiders on the basis of nonpublic information. As Insiders are legally allowed to buy and sell stocks. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires insiders to disclose their trades, and the financial newspapers report such trading. Investors find this information a source of valuable clues about companies. Insider trading puts a bad effect on stock market as people who earlier are willing to invest will now hesitate to invest as they will fear about the market fluctuation as market becomes more risky so as a result they would prefer not to invest.

MARKET AND PRICES

Stock prices too are generated by supply and demand. But supply and demand for stocks are not disembodied concepts. They are generated, obviously enough, by suppliers and demanders people with preferences, objectives, expectations, knowledge, and, therefore, plans. Part of what goes into an intention to buy or sell shares in a company is expectations about its future based on knowledge about its management, organization, and so on. These expectations are incorporated into the share price, and changes in  expectations bring about changes in price. The more knowledgeable the participants, the more fully do prices perform their communications work. Nothing would undermine confidence in markets more than the belief that prices are out of date.

CIVIL PENALITIES FOR INSIDER TRADING

A.  AUTHORITY TON IMPOSE CIVIL PENALITIES

1.  JUDIIAL ACTIONS BY COMMISSION AUTHORIZED

According to judicial actions by commission authority whenever it will come to the notice of commission  that any person has violated any provision and regulations there under by purchasing or selling a security or security-based swap agreement while in possession of material, nonpublic information in, or has violated any such provision by communicating such information through the facilities of a national securities exchange through a broker or dealer, and which is not part of a public offering by an issuer of securities.

A.  This section  bring an action in a United States court to seek and the court shall impose a civil penalty to be paid by a person who directly or indirectly controlled the person who committed such violation.

B.  may bring an action in a United States court to seek and the court shall have jurisdiction to impose a civil penalty to be paid by the person who committed such violation

2.  AMOUNT OF PENALTY FOR PERSON  WHO COMMITS VIOLATION

The amount of the penalty which might be imposed on person who commits such violation shall be evaluated by the court in accordance of the facts and circumstances and will not exceed three times the profit gained or loss incurred as a result of such unlawful sale, purchase or communication.

B. AMOUNT OF PENALTY FOR CONTROLLING PERSON

The amount of penalty which might be imposed on the person who directly or indirectly control the person who commits such violation will be evaluated by the court in accordance of the facts and circumstances and  will  not exceed three times the amount of the profit gained or loss incurred as a result of such controlled person’s violation.

C.  LIMITATION ON LIABILITY

1.  LIABILITY OF CONTROLLING PERSONS

No controlling person shall be subject to a penalty under section (a)(1)(B) unless the Commission finds that.

A.  the controlling person knew the fact that such controlled person was likely to engage in the act constituting the violation and failed to take required steps to prevent such act  before they occurred.

B.  such controlling person knowingly or unknowingly failed to establish or maintain any  procedure required under the act  of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and such failure substantially lead to the occurrence of the act constituting the violation.

2.  ADDITIONAL RESTRICTIONS ON LIABILITY

No person shall be subject to  penalty under subsection (a) of  section solely by reason of employing another person who is subject to  penalty under subsection unless such employing person is liable as  controlling person (1) of this subsection. shall not apply to actions subsection (a) of this section.

D.  AUTHORITY OF COMMISSION

The Commission by such rules regulations as it considers necessary in the public interest and primarily for the protection of investors may exempt in whole or some part  unconditionally or for specific terms and conditions, any person  from this section.

E.  PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION

1.  PAYMENT OF PENALTY TO TREASURY

A penalty imposed under this section shall  be payable into the Treasury of the United States except as otherwise provided in section 308

2. Collection of penalties

A person on whom such  penalty is imposed shall fail to pay such penalty within the time prescribed in the court’s order then the Commission may refer the matter to the major Attorney General who will recover such penalty by action in the appropriate court.

3.  REMEDY NOT EXCLUSIVE

The actions authorized by section might  be brought in addition to some other actions that the Commission  are entitled to bring.

4.  JURISDICTION AND VENUE

For purposes of section 27 under this section shall be actions to enforce a liability or might be a duty created by this title.

5.  STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

No action will be included under this section for more than 5 years after the date of the sale or purchase. This section shall not be construed to bar limit in any manner  action by the Commission or  under any other provision of this title nor shall it in any manner any action to recover penalties, or to seek any other order regarding penalties, imposed in any action commenced between 5 years of such transaction.

F.  Authority to award bounties to informants

Notwithstanding the provisions of this section there shall be paid from amounts imposed as a penalty under this section and recovered by the Commission or the Attorney General and not to exceed 10 percent of such amounts as the Commission deems appropriate to the person who provide information leading to the imposition of such penalty.Any determinations under this section including in what amount to make payments shall be in the solely decided of the Commission except that no such payment shall be made to any member or officer or employee of any appropriate regulatory agency.

ARTICLES

Insider Trading

by David D. Haddock

Since the depths of the Great Depression the Securities and Exchange Commission  has always tried to prevent insider trading  to become that common in U.S. securities markets. Insiders  that can be a firm’s principal owners or directors, and management as well as its lawyers accountants that routinely possess information that is unavailable to the general public. This is Because some of that information can affect the prices of  firm’s securities as soon as it becomes public and because of this insiders can profit by buying or selling in advance.

Even before the thirties insiders were held  liable under the common law if they fraudulently or intentionally misled traders who were uninformed into accepting inappropriate prices.  But the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 also forbid insiders from even profiting from superior information.

One of the most famous instances of insider trading was of Charles F. Fogarty’s who purchased  Texas Gulf Sulphur shares during 1963-1964. Fogarty, who was an executive vice president of Texas Gulf already knew that the company had discovered a rich mineral lode in Ontario and that it will not be publicize before concluding leases for mineral rights.  So In the meantime Fogarty decided to purchase 3,100 Texas Gulf shares and earned $125,000 -150,000.

The basic argument that is against insider trading is that the insiders should not be permitted or allowed to earn such profits at the expense of uninformed traders. Yet in  all other markets where information is important for insider trading is well established and very widely accepted.

For example to explain it quite well mineral leases are normally and routinely bought by those better able as Texas Gulf Sulphur’s behavior exemplified than the sellers to evaluate a site’s potential and the Cattle buyers rely on superior estimates of what packers will pay when they will negotiate. And so it goes in markets for art or for real estate or for professional athletes who are indeed in practically every market with substantial variations in the prices. In all those markets a few buyers routinely profit from knowledge that most sellers do not possess, and a few sellers profit from knowledge that most buyers do not possess.

One reason frequently cited by policymakers and commentators is that insider trading undermines public confidence in the securities markets.If people fear that insiders will regularly profit at their expense, they will not be as willing to invest and frequent opportunities to trade at observable prices. Efficient securities market  it is argued a require a to avoid frightening away speculators who  wish to contribute to securities market liquidity and  those investors who could invest their savings in markets and with less risk of insider predation.

Related to this argument is very important thing that is the harm that insider trading can cause to the specialists.  A specialist is the one who the stock exchange appoints to ensure that a any buyer of a particular security that is listed by the exchange can  find a seller. These specialists must sell or buy to any trader whose order cannot be discharged against any other orders arriving side by side.

For example  if a buyer wants a hundred shares of IBM but no one wants to sell at that point of moment then the IBM specialist  will sells from his inventory of IBM stock. The specialist charges a bid-ask spread to cover that cost. A bid-ask spread implies that a bit higher price is asked from someone who wishes to purchase a security than will be offered to someone who wishes to sell.

An inside trader can however can sell securities to the that specialist who is the one when only he knows that the securities will soon be worth less and will be of no use. After the price had fallen the insider is very well free to repurchase the securities again from that specialist for the lower price than the intrinsic value. If  it happens the specialist bears loss. If insider trading reoccurs then the security’s specialist cannot continue without recouping the funds that have been lost to informed traders.

If in insider trading increased the spread and it would decrease a security’s attractiveness relative to certificates of deposit and government bonds and other assets. Raising new capital would definitely will be more costly for a firm whose securities are subjected to repeated insider trading. Therefore everything being equal insider trading makes it harder for a firm to raise money when opportunities to undertake new projects arise.

Of course insiders can also profit by borrowing and selling securities when the price is apt to fall. Some argue that insider trading more likely to harm companies because damage is easier to inflict. That argument turn has been countered major actions by a company require teams not individuals.

A number of financial economists and law professors take the position that insider trading ought to be legal. They put their case on the basic proposition that insider trading makes the stock market more efficient. the insider will have no incentive to trade on the information .If insider trading was legal insiders will bid the prices of stocks up or down in advance of the information being released. The result is that the price would more  reflect all information both public and confidential about a company at any given time.

Besides specialists the other group systematically injured by insider trading are price-function traders those who trade securities because they believe the present price is inappropriate. If an insider secretly buys securities the result is increase in price. some price function traders believe that security is now overpriced they sell but soon regret their action. Few people have the expertise to realize trading profits repeatedly.

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CASES

SIX PEOPLE CHARGES IN INDISER TRADING CASE

BILLIONAIRE RAJ RAJARATNAM, FIVE OTHERS CHARGED IN CASE

updated 7:40 p.m. ET Oct. 16, 2009

One of America’s wealthiest men was among six hedge fund managers and corporate executives arrested Friday in a hedge fund insider trading case that authorities say generated more than $25 million in illegal profits and was a wake-up call for Wall Street.

Raj Rajaratnam, a portfolio manager for Galleon Group, a hedge fund with up to $7 billion in assets under management, was accused of conspiring with others to use insider information to trade securities in several publicly traded companies, including Google Inc.

U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara told a news conference it was the largest hedge fund case ever prosecuted and marked the first use of court-authorized wiretaps to capture conversations by suspects in an insider trading case.

He said the case should cause financial professionals considering insider trades in the future to wonder whether law enforcement is listening.

Joseph Demarest Jr the head of the New York FBI office, said it was clear that “the 20 million dollars in illicit profits come at the expense of the average public investor.

The Securities and Exchange Commission, which brought separate civil charges, said the scheme generated more than $25 million in illegal profits.

Robert Khuzami, director of enforcement at the SEC said the charges show Rajaratnam’s  secret of success was not genius trading strategies.

Galleon Group LLP said in a statement it was shocked to learn of Rajaratnam’s arrest at his apartment. We had no knowledge of the investigation before it was made public and we intend to cooperate fully with the relevant authorities.

Rajaratnam, 52, was ranked No. 559 by Forbes magazine this year among the world’s wealthiest billionaires, with a $1.3 billion net worth.

According to the Federal Election Commission. he is a generous contributor to Democratic candidates and causes. The FEC said he made over $87,000 in contributions to President Barack Obama’s campaign, the Democratic National Committee and various campaigns on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton, U.S. Sen. Charles Schumer and New Jersey U.S. Sen. Robert Menendez in the past five years. The Center for Responsive Politics, a watchdog group, said he has given a total of $118,000 since 2004 all but one contribution, for $5,000, to Democrats.

The Associated Press has learned that even before his arrest, Rajaratnam was under scrutiny for helping bankroll Sri Lankan militants notorious for suicide bombings.

Papers filed in U.S.District Court in Brooklyn allege that Rajaratnam worked closely with a phony charity that channeled funds to the Tamil Tiger terrorist organization. Those papers refer to him only as Individual B. But U.S. law enforcement and government officials familiar with the case have confirmed that the individual is Rajaratnam.

At an initial court appearance in U.S. District Court in Manhattan, Assistant U.S. Attorney Josh Klein sought detention for Rajaratnam, saying there was “a grave concern about flight risk” given Rajaratnam’s wealth and his frequent travels around the world.

His lawyer, Jim Walden, called his client a “citizen of the world,” who has made more than $20 million in charitable donations in the last five years and had risen from humble beginnings in the finance profession to oversee hedge funds responsible for nearly $8 billion.

Walden promised “there’s a lot more to this case” and his client was ready to prepare for it from home. Rajaratnam lives in a $10 million condominium with his wife of 20 years, their three children and two elderly parents. Walden noted that many of his employees were in court ready to sign a bail package on his behalf.

NOMURA CAUGHT IN INSIDER TRADING SCANDAL

By Emi Emoto and Aiko Hayashi

TOKYO Nomura Holdings, Japan’s largest brokerage house, said on Tuesday that it had fired an employee at the centre of an insider trading ring and warned the fallout could harm its business.

The insider trading scandal, the broker’s second in five years, comes on top of falling profits and $1.4 billion in subprime losses, after which the firm replaced its CEO.

Recently appointed CEO Kenichi Watanabe bowed in apology for the scandal, which drew harsh comments from government officials and sent the firm’s share price down 3.9 percent.

It also led to a drop-off in business at the firm on Tuesday as some institutional investors stopped placing orders due to compliance concerns, a source on the Nomura trading floor said.

Watanabe said the employee at the centre of the probe had been dismissed for violating company rules and warned the case would have an unspecified impact on earnings.

It was significant that we were involved in something that hurt the brokerage industry he said, adding he saw the case as an individual matter, rather than a sign of wider problems at his firm.

The employee at the centre of the scandal worked in the M&A advisory department where he repeatedly used insider information about merger and acquisition deals, a source with direct knowledge of the matter said.

The 30-year old, from Nomura’s Hong Kong unit, was suspected of giving information on merger deals to two acquaintances who then profited on stock trades, Kyodo News agency said.

N.J MAN ADMITS INSIDER TRADING

By Carrie Johnson

Washington Post Staff Writer

Thursday, June 17, 2004; Page E03

In this case a new jersey insurance broker committed that he is guilty to insider trading using that information that he had received from the husband of a secretary who took care of mergers and acquisition at a new York law firm.

Ronald A. Manzo, 60, also lied to regulators at the Securities and Exchange Commission who were investigating purchases of seven stocks in 1998 and 1999, federal prosecutors in New York said.He earned more than $980,000 through the scheme, they said.

Manzo could be sentenced to 40 years in prison and be fined millions of dollars.

Prosecutors  unsealed a related guilty plea by Fiore J. Gallucci, who allegedly passed information about pending deals from his wife, an assistant at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP, to Manzo to curry favor with him.

Gallucci, 62, received some money from Manzo but did not trade in the stocks himself. His wife, who no longer works at Skadden. did not know he was improperly sharing the information and was not charged with breaking the law.

Separately, the SEC sued Gallucci, Manzo and Gary B. Taffet, a former chief of staff to New Jersey Gov. James E. McGreevey (D), for insider trades that resulted in $3 million in profit. The SEC said that Manzo tipped off Taffet using the information he had acquired from Gallucci. Gallucci and Manzo are in negotiations to settle the civil charges but Taffet, who was not charged with a crime, is fighting the allegations.

“We are disturbed at the SEC’s decision to bring charges against Mr. Taffet, whose stock trading was not based on illegally obtained information.The reality is that Mr. Taffet did not know or deal with any insider at the companies he traded, nor did he knowingly disclose nonpublic information to any third party.

Managers at Skadden, one of the most prominent dealmaking law firms in the world, said they cooperated with the investigation. Regulators said the practice of insider traders using information gathered from law firm employees is not uncommon.

The crux of this case is that people who are in possession of material nonpublic information for legitimate reasons need to carefully consider to whom they can entrust this information.

Water Scarcity in Singapore

Abstract

This report mentioned about the water scarcity in Singapore. There are lots of water problems happened over the few past years. I have searched several websites and some scientific essays about the problem which is discribe as a serious water shortage in Singapore. The hypothesis is that they can improve the situation if they continue to follow their policy, and the final findings actually proved my hypothesis. At last, several solutions are compared and judged, such as using water from another city while developing the water system inside their country. Also, other ideas and factors are concerned in this report.

Introduction

This is a scientific report which is all about water scarcity in Singapore. It is a serious problem that their usable water is really in a shortage level. Every living life there lived on their limited water resources. These problems mentioned different areas in water chemistry, such as analyzing the elements in the water to make sure if the properties of those rivers are suitable for people to live. In China, it is common to see green water in the city, because of the impurities that came from the factories mixed in the water. (XinHua, 2011)Accorfing to the research, there are only 100 cubic metres available for each person in China. However, in rural places of China, this kind of position is even serious, these are all caused by the environment. To talk about water, aquatic ecosystem is a large factor of this area, it means the whole surroundings, including the living things and the environment in a particular place. Chinese governments had made countless laws to protect the water properties, and had encouraged people in those areas start to take actions to collect rain for desalinating. This way can actually improve the water problem but is not enough for people to use during time passed. From my point of view, the best way of dealing with this problem is to keep the strategy that they are using now, because it will be fine to keep the country going on.

Methodology

My research information is quite reliable, because they referred many websites from government, academic websites, and also from some famous universities. Several websites and essays are compared together in order to find the best information for my main topic. The causes of polluting water, the local situation of water in China and Singapore, the supply and the demand of water that each country faces, all the problems mentioned above are researched carefully. The reliability of each websites are checked, and the usable factors of information are selected, my hypothesis is supported by these information, so they yshould be brilliant ideas in this report.

Findings

According to the research I had done, water scarcity becomes the largest problem for the whole world. The increasing of population forces the government to solve water scarcity immediately. After mid-1960s, Singapore started to develop its economy, and this causes the large demand of water but citizens can not paid for it. Hence, this leaded to the water scarcity. Chew Men Leong said that Singapore mostly relied on water from Malaysia since 1927. These countries are always friends because of the relationship of water. Years later, Chew Men Leong indicated that their Singapore government should use the lands wisely and hurry up in the area of water reuse system. Then, they spent years of time working on improving the reuse system, meanwhile, they appeal people to save as much as they can. (INSEAD.edu) The biggest problems happened in Singapore are the reuse of water, and the supply problem. The website shows that it often rains in Singapore, but the lands in Singapore are too limited, there are only few lakes that can store water. Another problem is that the population in Singapore is continuing to raise, although the usable water is providing more and more by the government, citizens still do not have enough water to live. I have done same search on China, it is also a country that facing a serious situation with water scarcity, and there are some relations between these two countries. After research we can see that the government had transform water from Johor to cities in Singapore in order to improve the serious problem. Further more,from 2011, the technique of collecing water had helped Singapore increase 2/3 of their lands so that citizens have more lands to live on.

Here listed the problems China has: (Graphic 1)

  1. Lagging water resource management reforms
  1. Lack of an integrated, efficient, and effective institutional system
  1. Weak water resource management
  1. Underdeveloped water rights system
  1. Slow establishment of water markets
  1. Overemphasis on engineering projects compared to management approaches
  1. Lack of a stable financing mechanism for environmental investment
  1. Insufficient attention to role of natural water bodies to support ecosystems

(Glenshewchuck, 2010)

Discussion

Referred to the findings, the hypothesis is supported. What government did to their citizens is not enough for solving this water problem, because the information I collected had obviously shows that as the development passing, the population of people in Singapore had also raised a lot, and they are still worrying about the supply of water in their country. If this policy is used in China, it also can not solve water scarcity, especially when the population are too large, because this is the largest cause of a mass of water demand. As the hypothesis described, the government can do more to their country, such as develop more lakes for storage the rain, they had already set up a great water reusing and water desalinating system, and the weather there provides them enough rain each year, if they could use those rain, the problem must be reduced a lot. Water scarcity had disrupted people’s life in Singapore, and nowadays the problem is getting larger and larger, the governments also made laws to protect and remind people that fresh water is not countless. Believe that everyone in the world can see different types of advertisements both on the wall and television, they are all about telling people to save water, bacause as we know, there are only 2.5 percent of water can be used by human. In addition, we can easily find that there are some similarities between Singapore and China, although they are not in the same situation, even they are totaly different in the reasons of water scarcity, they are both need an integrated water system. They are both slow in developing water system. (Glenshewchuck, 2010) Hence, the protection and more strategies should be done by every individual in the whole world, Singapore can also use the strategies which China used, firstly compelete the policy of using water, reduce the price of water for poor peole rationaly, and then keep environment clean enough for people store water for reusing. In order to improve the environment, both of them had appeal people to keep rivers clean, and what they can do is to continue this action.

Conclusions and Recommendation

All in all, the hypothesis is supported by the evidences I provide before. Obviously, there are also a large amount of researches can be done, because the development is moving faster and faster, the demands are also becoming larger and larger, if they do not change this situation, it could be worse. However, there are only references from the Internet, but I think this is not enough, there should be more references from scientific books, because books are published to the public, they can not be changed by anyone.

Reference

The world bank. ‘Dealing with water scarcity in Singapore: Institution, Strategies, and

Enforcement’ (2006), world bank [online.] Available from:

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/Resources/

WRM_Singapore_experience_EN.pdf [Assessed on 5 October 2016]

Hua, Xin. ‘Beijing to fight water scarcity’ (2011), China daily [online.] Available from:

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-10/08/content_13851695.htm

[Assessed on 5 October 2016]

Liping, Jiang. ‘How to combat water scarcity in China’ (2011), China.org.cn [online.]

Avalable from: http://www.china.org.cn/opinion/2011-03/03/content_22043145_2.htm

[Assessed on 6 October 2016]

Glenshewchuck. ‘Water scarcity- China’ (2010), world resources sin center [online.]

Available from: http://www.wrsc.org/story/water-scarcity-china-0

[Assessed on 6 October 2016]

‘Tackling Singapore’s water shortage’, INSEAD[online.] Avaiable from:

http://centres.insead.edu/innovation-policy/events/documents/Singapore-WaterShortage.pdf

[Assessed on 6 October 2016]

Luxury Goods: Definition and literature

2.0 DEFINITION OF LUXURY GOODS

The word ‘luxury’ can be defined as state of life in which has uses things that please the senses or pleasing to have but not essential. “A good attains the label as a “luxury” when it has a particular design, quality, performance or durability that is remarkably superior to the comparable substitutes” (Snapshot of U.S Luxury Good Market, 2007).

Dubois, Laurent and Czellar (2001) and Survanasuddhi (2007) stated a definition of the nature and characteristics of the concept of luxury. The six facets are excellent quality, very high price, scarcity and uniqueness, aesthetics and polysensuality, ancestral heritage and personal history and superfluousness.

Luxury goods are rising in popularity especially as consumers’ buying behavior is becoming more symbolized. Consumers feel that by owning luxury products can express their personality and set them apart. Thus, “luxury goods have been defined as goods for which the mere use or display of a particular branded product brings prestige on the owner, apart from any functional utility” (Nia and Zaikowsky,2000)

The term ‘prestige’ was defined as it consists of consumers’ motivations for chasing technical superiority, uniqueness, signaling wealth and status well as aesthetics appeal (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999). ‘Prestige’ and ‘luxury’ are used synonymously in the VIgneron and Johnson’s research. Vigneron and Johnson (1999) categorized three types of prestige brand as upmarket brands, premium brands and luxury brands, respectively in an increasing order of prestige. Hence, it was expected that people would have different perceptions of the level of prestige for the same brands, and that the overall prestige level of a brand would consider the prestige perceptions from different people.

Source: Vigneron and Johnson (1999)

“Luxury brands can be described as premium priced brands that consumers purchase for their psychological values (symbolic and hedonic), and not predominately for their economical and functional value” (Nueno and Quelch 1998; Stegeman, 2006).

However, the definition of luxury goods or brands cannot be fully recognized. The definition of luxury will be different and may not be the same for another researcher. Chadha & Husband (2006) definition limits itself in that it only pertains to luxury fashion goods instead there are other luxury goods that are also both universally available and accepted as luxury. The definition of luxury brands have been defined as fashionable and high quality consumers’ goods made by reputed luxury brands which contained wearable fashion goods such as handbag, wallet, shoes and belt (Chadha and Husband, 2006; Heinemann, 2008). Fashion can be reflection of the social, economic, political and artistic forces of the time.

Accoding to Gao, Norton, Zhang, To (2009), “luxury fashion goods are apparel, accessories, handbags, shoes, watches, jewellery, and perfume for which use or display of particular branded products brings prestige to owners, apart from any functional utility”. Snapshot of U.S Luxury Good Market (2007) stated fashion group represent the major product sector in the luxury goods market. It is important to know that the survey showed that “one sixth (16%) of the world’s consumers claim to buy designer brands” (ACNielsen, 2008).

For this research, the term luxury goods can be defined as the brands that are defined as luxurious in the annual “Consumer and Designer Brand Report 2008” by the global Nielson firm which the survey is the largest and it identified the following goods as the luxury fashion goods.

Calvin Klien Giorgio Armani Celine

Ralph Lauren Louis Vuitton Ferragamo

Diesel Burberry Chloe

Chanel Versace Marc Jacobs

Christian Dior Prada

Gucci Givenchy

DKNY Emporio Armani

Valentino Hermes Fendi

Yves Saint Lauren Max Mara

The fashion goods that show above are not the only goods that are stated as luxury in this research. Consumers allow to evaluate and include other brands which they think is luxury fashion goods for them.

Furthermore, there are many opinions and views of luxury from different leaders’ viewpoint stated in KPMG research (Managing Luxury Brand Growth, 2006). Luxury is explained in the table below as following:

Leaders’ Name and Company

DEFINITION

1. GUY SALTER

* Private Investor, Deputy Chairman of Walpole, the British Luxury goods organization

Because luxury matters in a way that didn’t matter before. Increasingly, luxury is big business: the luxury segment is growing and according to most projections it will continue to grow for the next ten to fifteen years.

2. BELINDA EARL,

* Jaeger Group’s chief executive

* Jaeger is a luxury British brand renowned for designing stylish, innovative and superb quality womenswear, menswear and accessories.

None of us are in the business selling necessities; luxury is the business of creating and satisfying desires.

3. RICHARD PURDEY OF GUN MAKERS JAMES PURDEY AND SONS

* Famous British gun maker of London, and the name is synonymous with the very finest sporting shotguns and rifles. Purdeys hold or have held numerous warrants of appointment as gun and rifle makers to the British and other European royal families.

A real luxury brands has got to have total integrity. It has to be the buyer that says ‘this is luxury’.

4. THEO FENNELL

* Theo Fennell is the jewellery maker by using his name for his company ‘Theo Fennel’ in London

Luxury is something that everyone wants and nobody needs.

5. JOSEPH WAN OF HARVEY NICHOLS

* CEO of retailer Harvey Nichols

* Harvey Nichols is an international luxury lifestyle store, renowned both in the UK and internationally for the breadth and depth of its exclusive fashion merchandise. It offers many of the world’s most prestigious brands in womenswear, menswear, accessories, beauty, food and home.

Luxury is about history. A luxury brand is a lifestyle concept and to be sustainable it has to have history, including a history of quality merchandise and of real luxury customers..

6. RAPHAEL LE MASNE DE CHERMONT, OF SHANGHAI TANG

* Executive Chair of Shanghai Tang

* Shanghai Tang is the first luxury brand emerging design from Chiana

It is not in the price, it is in the pleasure you give to the customer. It is to do with creativity, a harmonious aesthetic with attention to details.

7.CHRISTIAN HAFNER

* Head of Branding at Swarovski

Luxury is about history, authenticity, depth and being a partner. Buying a luxury product is like a love affair.

2.1 GENERATION Y

Generation Y are also referred as the Millennial Generation or Generation Next or Net Generation describes the demographic cohort following Generation X. Its members are often referred to as Millennials or Echo Boomers. According to Shareef Mahdavi (2008), Generation Y is the term used to describe children of the Baby Boomer generation, typically born between 1977 and 1995. McCrindle (2008) described the generation Y born in between 1980 and 1994. They are also referred to as ‘Millenials’ and ‘Echo Boomers’ in the western society, especially American Society.

Generation Y are individuals who born between 1977 to 1994 that have a free spending spirit and consist of 71 million 8 to 25 year olds (Horovitz, 2002; Sriviroj 2007). The wealthiest groups of people are between the ages of 19 to 25 year olds who are either employed in full time jobs or part time work even though there are group amount of generation Y consumers. The greatest purchasing power in the Generation Y college student takes place within the part-time student, who spends over $400 monthly on discretionary purchases while often maintaining full-time employment (Gardyn, 2002). Those who are either part time or at full time work are college students (Martin & Turley, 2004). Students always work as part time work to find extra funding for their excessive spending during the university holidays or breaks. There are average 80% of students attending college or university are employed (Martin & Turley, 2004).

The financial knowledge of the average Generation Y consumer also earns them the awareness and respect of marketers even though their spending power alone is enough reason to pay significant attention to this group of consumers. The financial knowledge of the average Generation Y consumer also earns them the respect of marketers today. Generation Y consumers have a remarkable amount of disposable income due to the increasing of greater level in the economy over the past decade (Martin & Turley, 2004). Besides that, the research suggested that “Generation Y has more discretionary income than the previous generations and prefer to spend it on themselves rather than others. A reason for this may be because they are starting families later in life and therefore are able to spend their income on themselves without having to worry about others” (Angela Hughes, 2008)

The important of this group of consumers has taken on the greater level of meaning for marketer. “While the Baby Boomers grew up with television advertising influencing how they were marketed to and how they bought products, Generation Y has many different mediums that they grew up with, which is what makes marketing to them so much more difficult” (Angela Hughes, 2008). Marketers are playing the large part influence consumers’ behaviour through the knowledge of fashion. The reason is that teenagers are concerned about fashion value more than any other age groups (Koester and May,1985; Sriviroj 2007). One of the most influencers is the media because of media consist of a wide range of technology such as television, internet, mobile phone and DVD. (Angela Hughes, 2008, Sriviroj 2007). The internet has permanently changed the way that this generation shops by giving the information about products than the companies give the consumer. According to Angela Hughes (2008), he internet is also a powerful tool for this generation in spreading opinions about products to their peers. The largest differences between Generation Y and those that preceded them are Generation Y’s tremendous awareness and confidence. Generation Y is more likely than any previous generation to look up information before purchasing a product. Generation Y is more desirable to own the products that they know their peers will accept just to show they are part of the group. On the other hand, in the research of Sriviroj (2007) stated that television is strongly influence these generation which affect them as they will reflect their perceptions in “reality” as they have seen in television world. “Of the paid advertising channels of online, outdoor, newspaper, magazine, radio, TV and Theatrical, TV and newspaper are the most trusted media” (Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey, 2009).

“Generation Y is poised to take over as the largest and most lucrative consumer group for marketers, a position that has long been held by the Baby Boomer generation” (Angela Hughes, 2008). In order to understand the generation Y consumers, it is important to think about factors that motivate these individuals towards the purchasing of luxury goods.

2.2 SOCIAL INFLUENCE

Previous research shows that group influences play an important role in influencing the purchase decisions (Brinberg and Plimpton, 1986; Martin and Bush 2000; Mascareches and Higby, 1993). The group members have been recognized as determinant of behavior. The fact that the people act in accordance with a frame of reference produced by the group to which they belong is a long accepted and sound premise (Merton and Rossi, 1949). However, many individuals did not behave like the majority of people in their recognized group (e.g., social class or educational level).The casual observation showed perplexing contradictions between group membership and behaviors. According to Merton and Rossi (1994), “a partial solution was found in the concept of “reference group”, which recognizes that people frequently orient themselves to other than membership group in shaping their behaviors and evaluations and that reference groups can perform a diversity of functions.”

Reference groups are generally defined as “actual or imaginary institutions, individuals, or groups conceived of having significant relevance upon an individual‟s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior” (Lessig and Park, 1975; Pertina, Prybutok, Zhang, 2008). Besides that, reference group also can be defined as “a group of people that significantly influence an individual’s behavior” (Bearden and Etzel, 1982). Reference group are important because they make the individual aware to a specific goods or brands and influence individuals to adopt attitude and behaviour that are consistent with the norm of the group.

The normative and informative social influences are the most widely accepted influence. Normative social influence is based on the tendency to conform to the expectation of others while informational influence is based on the desire to make informed decisions and optimize the choice (Stephen Yang and He, 2009; Khan and Khan, 2005). Berden and Etzel (1982) examined that the reference group influence by product and the brand purchase decision. Previous research studied group influences in marketing strategy and consumer’s purchasing behaviour. Specifically, three types of group influences are studied which is information, utilitarian and value expressive influences (Stephen Yang and He; Bearden and Etzel, 1982; Makgosa and Mohube, 2007; Pertina, Prybutok, Zhang, 2008). Informational influence is reflected when an individual perceives enhancement of knowledge and ability to cope with environment when using information from opinion leaders, experts, or product users. Utilitarian influence manifests through the process of compliance with those who can exercise reward or punishment power. Value-expressive reference group function is based on the identification process whereas an individual who associates oneself with a group to enhance self-concept adopts this group’s consumption patterns. Reference groups have been found to specify what the desirable and undesirable goods are (Bristol and Malengburg, 2005; Khan and Khan, 2005). Many researchers have argued that individuals are more susceptible to reference groups influence when the goods is conspicuous and publicly consumed (Bearden and Etzel, 1982; Makgosa and Mohube, 2007; Batra, Homer, Kahle, 2009; Morris and White, 2009).

The influence of a reference group on consumer behavior can be done in one of two ways, either directly or indirectly. In the research Stephen Yang and He (2009), reference groups refer the group that individual has frequent contact with (such as family members, work associates, classmates, friends, etc.). These group is refers to the groups used by an individual to direct one’ purchasing behaviour in particular situation. These are generally referred as direct reference group (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1994). On the other hand, it included “the groups that does not have the membership in or direct contact with, such as certain expected groups or people in a certain social level (Stephen Yang and He, 2009). Based on the work of Khan and Khan (2005), the direct reference group influence was illustrated as “families, friends, co-worker, formal social groups and other leisure groups”. This differs from the indirect reference groups comprise of “individuals and groups that influence consumers’ purchase intentions without having and direct contact such as celebrities and sport personalities” (Khan and Khan, 2005).

2.2.1 DIRECT REFERENCE GROUPS

Direct reference groups can be defined as direct contact from the individual or groups with the consumers. With the reference from ….., it showed that families, friends, co-worker, formal social groups and other leisure groups are under this categories. A person has several reference groups for various subjects or different decisions normally. For example, “a woman may consult one reference group when she is purchasing a car and a different reference group for lingerie” (Consumer Behaviour, no date).These direct reference groups are the one who frequently contact with the consumers, It can be seen that the groups views from direct reference groups whether purchase the goods in order to be like group members, believing in group members’ decisions or a sign of wanting to fit in the group.

The previous researchers have carried out the investigations on how the role models (parents, relatives, peers) influence teenagers’ purchase intentions and behavior (Martin and Bush; Subramanian and Subramanian, 1995)) and how parents and peers influence various products and brands’ purchase decisions (Bearden and Etzel, 1982). Researcher has shown that overt family communication can and often does influence younger consumers’ attitudes toward purchases and their consumption patterns (Martin and Bush).

Consumers always do not feel confident enough to evaluate alone. They will consult a friend or partner by inviting them along to a potential purchase can enhance the process. “Having a peer present meant that shop assistants become largely irrelevant and that evaluation of a brand centered largely on initial peer reaction to fit, style and price-based decisions” (Guy W.Mullarkey, 2001). “It is also interesting to note that of all the three direct reference groups, friends tend to exert the greatest influence where individuals purchase brands because they identify themselves with their peers” (Khan and Khan, 2005).

From the numerous researches that have been done, direct reference groups influence make an immediate impact to the consumers. Therefore, it can be concluded that direct reference groups play a significant role in providing relevant information, deemed necessary to make a purchase and conform the group norm.

2.2.2 INDIRECT REFERENCE GROUPS

Indirect reference groups is the group that influence consumers’ purchase decisions without having any direct contact with the consumers such as celebrities and sport personalities. Khan and Khan (2005) defined celebrities as “individuals who are well known to the public for their advertisements in areas other than product class endorsed” and that they represent “an idealisation of life”.

In luxury goods industry, it will be much easier by connecting the brand to a celebrity and is even viewed, in some instances, as a necessity. This is because a luxury goods company is in the business of building and selling dreams, and nothing is more helpful in making such dreams concrete and thus more believable in the eyes of the consumer, than communicating it through a famous personality. Celebrities are being increasingly used in marketing communication by marketers to lend personality to their products in India (Matrade Chennai, 2005).

Young consumers especially the generation-Y like advertisement more if they are attracted or admire the celebrities. Positive feelings toward the celebrities and the brand itself will develop more from the young consumers. “Research indicates that celebrity endorsements can result in more favorable advertisement ratings and product evaluations and can have a substantial positive impact on financial returns for the companies that use them” (Silvera and Austad, 2004). Besides that, previous research indicates that celebrities exert influence on consumers purchase intentions and decisions (Martin and Bush, 2000). “Celebrities have also been found to enhance persuasiveness of messages and lead to actual purchases” (Khan and Khan, 2005). For example, Madonna and Demi Moore for Versace—beautiful, successful, mature women in their 40s, transgressive, independent, non-conformist, sexy, etc. (Roncaglia and Brevetti, 2006).

In conclusion, even there is no direct contact with consumers; indirect reference groups have the strong influence to the generation-Y which affects their brand choices toward the luxury goods.

2.3 PERCEIVED CONSPICUOUS VALUE

Vigneron and Johnson (1999) defined five values of prestige behaviour combined with five relevant motivations, and from these identified five different categories of prestige consumers. According to his study, particularly emphasized the role of interpersonal effects on the consumption of prestige brands, and derived three main effects: Veblen, Snob, and Bandwagon. “The Veblen, snob and bandwagon effects are evident with consumers who perceive price as the most important factor, with a higher price indicating greater prestige. They usually buy rare products and in this way emphasise their status” ((Husic and Cicic, 2008).

In addition, the study also conducted by Vigneron & Johnson (1999) included the conceptualized framework on two main personal effects: Hedonist and Perfectionist. “Hedonists and perfectionists are more interested in pleasure derived from the use of luxury products, and less interested in the price than quality, product characteristics and performance. These consumers know what they want and use their own judgment while price exists only as proof of quality” (Husic and Cicic, 2008).

Perceived conspicuous value which known as Veblen effect is the consumption of the luxury product is viewed as a signal of status and wealth, whose price, expensive by normal standards, enhances the value of such a signal. (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999).

Several researchers demonstrated that price of product have a significant aspect in consumers’ opinion of quality (Vigneron & Johnson, 1999). The price of the product is use to judge quality of the luxury products between different brands. Luxury is an expensive investment. Therefore, a high price has to be justified by an outstanding quality and aesthetics that mass produced goods can’t guarantee (Barnier, Rodina, Florence, 2005). For some consumers, high price equals high quality; therefore, they are willing to pay more for high quality. “Brand exclusivity is the positioning of a brand such that it can command a high price relative to similar products” (Groth and McDaniel, 1993).

In addition, it is suggested that “consumers who perceived price as a proxy for quality, also perceived high prices as an indicator suggesting a certain degree of prestige” (Lichtenstein, Ridgway, and Netemeyer 1993). This statement is further supported in recommend the use of “prestige-pricing strategy” by the marketing literature when appealing to status-conscious consumers (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999; Luong Thi Bich Thuy, 2008).

Numerous researchers have conducted the original work from Bourne (1957), which focused on the influence of reference groups on the consumption of prestige brands (Mason 1981 and 1992; Bearden and Etzel 1982, Vigneron and Johnson, 1999). They found that there was a positive relationship between conspicuous consumption and reference groups. Studies on reference group influence have shown that the “conspicuousness of a product was positively related to its susceptibility to reference group influence” (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999). Additionally, Bearden and Etzel (1982) stated that luxury products that were publicly purchased are more conspicuous products in comparison to products that were privately consumed.

The studies also suggested that the luxury products may used to communicate information about their identity. Veblen (1899) suggested that conspicuous consumption was used by people to signal wealth and by inference power and status. The utility of the luxury products may be to display wealth and one could consider that luxury brands would dominate the conspicuous segment of the consumers.

In conclusion, it can be concluded that conspicuous consumption of luxury goods is used to display wealth, power and status. It is playing significant role that how individual motivated into purchasing luxury goods.

2.4 PERCEIVED QUALITY VALUE

Within the field of marketing, the construct of perceived quality has been widely acknowledged as the primary driver of purchase intention (Jacoby and Olson, 1985). According to Vigneron and Johnson (1999), perceived quality value is defined as “luxury is partly derived from technical superiority and the extreme care that takes place during the production process”. Thus, Husic and Cicic (2008) stated perfectionism effect or perceived quality as “perfectionist consumers depend on their own perception of the product’s quality, and may use price as further evidence of quality”.

“Excellent quality is a sine qua non and it is important that the premium marketer maintains and develops leadership in quality” (Quelch, 1987; Vigneron and Johnson, 1999; Dubois, Laurent, Czellar, 2009; Barnier, Rodina, Florence, 2005; Srichan Sriviroj, 2007 ). In a survey conducted by ACNielsen (2008), it was found that on a global average, “28% believe that are of significantly higher quality than standard brands”.

Source: ACNielsen Report (Consumer and Deisgner Brands), April 2008

Consumer might own prestige goods because they are likely to be of higher quality (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999). A consumer who own a luxury fashion goods is likely to expect that the goods longevity and durability (Dubois, Laurent, Czellar, 2009; Barnier, Rodina, Florence, 2005; Srichan Sriviroj, 2007; Sarisa Suvarnasuddhi, 2007) compare with mass products. It should become better with time and should not lose its appeal (Barnier, Rodina, Florence, 2005).

According to the Nielsen survey (2009), designer brands stand for fashion and superior quality however in the developing markets of Latin America, Asia, South Africa and the UAE. A half of respondents in these countries think these brands are for fashion followers, and up to 40 percent believe they offer superior quality. Thus, it is interesting that the greatest percentage of people who believe designer brands offer significantly higher quality over non designer alternatives hail from Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Turkey.

Source: ACNielsen Report (Consumer and Deisgner Brands), May 2006

Luxury and premium brands are expected to show quality and even greater quality as well (Garfein, 1989; Roux, 1995; Vigneron and Johnson, 1999; Srichan Sriviroj, 2007; Luong Thi Bich Thuy, 2008). Groth and McDaniel (1993) stated that “high prices may even make certain products or service more desirable”, because people take that products with high prices with great quality (Rao and Monroe, 1989). In fact, luxury products will lose their scarcity and uniqueness characteristics if luxury products are not priced high (Dubois and Duquesne, 1993). The studies and literature on luxury products suggested that the “quality cue might also be used by consumers to evaluate the level of prestige of brands” (Rao and Monroe, 1989; Vigneron and Johnson, 1999; Luong Thi Bich Thuy, 2008). A low level of quality would play a negative role over the perception of the brand. In contrast, the person’s quality perception would play a positive role over his or her perception of prestige on the same brand if the buyer or the consumer perceives the brand as having an excellent level of quality. (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999; Luong Thi Bich Thuy, 2008)

According to Vigneron and Johnson (1999), it stated that the perfectionist effect exists when consumers purchase luxury items and expects superior products and performance as well as quality. People who represent the perfectionist effect are those “who are assessed to personal values and judge a product according to their value of a luxury brand product” (Srichan Sriviroj, 2007; Luong Thi Bich Thuy, 2008) such as comfort and speed for luxury car or accuracy of the luxury watch.

Even previous researches showed that conspicuous vale is more important effect and evident with consumers who perceive price is the most important factor. However, there were researchers stated that quality value is also important such as Jacoby and Olson (1983). In conclusion, perceived quality value were found important to study and can be use to identify the luxury consumption.

2.5 BRAND IMAGE

Brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers (www.marketingpower.com; Iyiade Adedamola Taofik, 2009; Suvarnasuddhi, 2007). In the research of Korchia (1999), “image creates value in a variety of ways, helping consumers to process information, differentiating the brand, generating reasons to buy, giving positive feelings, and providing a basis for extensions”. Cheng (2006) stated that brand is important because the consumers’ perception of a product can be affected by the added value of a brand. “Brands signal to consumers the quality of a product, the image that it is meant to convey, as well as representing particular current garment styles and trends in a fashion context” (Keller, 1993; Guy W.Mullarkey, 2001).

Brand image can be defines as “perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory” (Keller, 1993; Cheng, 2006; Rio, Varques, Iglesias, 2001). Many researchers have been agreed the important of brand image. Brand image is pivotal because it influences purchase intention and consumers’ preference as well as they are willing to recommend to others and willing to pay higher price (Forsythe, Kwon, P.Leone, Shannon, 2008; Aiello, Donvito, Godey, Pederzoli, Wiedmann, Hennigs, Siebels)

“To succeed in the changing marketplace, a designer brand needs to sell its core brand values; the “image” reflected in the design and the lifestyle it represents is what consumers pay a premium to buy into” remarked byKaren Watson, Chief Communications Officer, The Nielsen Company.

Consumers able to difference the product differentiation, decrease the purchase risks, obtain several experience and recognize the product and its quality through brand image (Lin and Lin, 2007). “The personal identification function is related to the fact that consumers can identify themselves with some brands and develop feelings of affinity towards them” (Rio, Varques, Iglesias, 2001). It refers to correspondence between consumers’ behaviour, self image and image of the product. Through the image of the products the consumers buy and use, his or her self image can be improve based on the theory. It also can be inferred that “individuals prefer brands that have images compatible with their perceptions of self” (Chiu, Lin, Chiu, Chang). In addition, a positive brand image able to lower the products purchase risks and increase the positive feedback from consumers. “Consumers are more likely to purchase well known brand products with positive brand image as a way to lower purchase risks” (Akaah and Korgaonkar, 1988; Aiello, Donvito, Godey, Pederzoli, Wiedmann, Hennigs, Siebels). Hence, consumers feel it is less risky by purchasing branded products.

“The country of origin of a brand is also an influential factor for consumers choosing a product in both Asia and in Western countries” (Pervin). There are many researches suggested the country of origin influence on consumer perception and behaviour through the image of the product’s country of origin (Phau and Leng, 2008; Forsythe, Kwon, P.Leone, Shannon, 2008; Aiello, Donvito, Godey, Pederzoli, Wiedmann, Hennigs, Siebels). It creates positive brand image to increase the possibility for the products to be chosen and also raise the inferior image of the country of origin (Thakor and Katsanis; 1997 Lin and Lin, 2007). According to Grewal, Krishnan, Baker, and Borin (1998), the better a brand image is, the more recognition consumers give to its product quality.

In summary, it can’t be denied that brand image plays a pivotal in shaping consumers’ perception of a brand. Thus, it can be conclude that brand image is crucial to the consumers’ purchase decision.

2.6 AESTHETICS

“An aesthetic object is defined as an object produces a sensory response in an audience such as satisfaction, pleasure or affect” (Fine, 1992; Eisenman, 2009). The researches from Barnier, Rodina, Florence (2009) shows that the aesthetics are primary importance because the dimension colour, design and beauty create by style. The aesthetics dimensions of goods are anticipated but also presented as well as from the people who consume these goods (Dubois, Laurent, Czellar, 2001). According to Eisenman (2009), aesthetics of the products are increasing in important competitive dimension from the prominent firms who appear to be giving aesthetics.

The consumers are attracted by the colour, originality of its design and style at the first place. According to Barnier, Rodina, Florence (2009), the beauty and originality of the products can be show by the combination of the colour and the material which are playing the important roles of design and style. Beauty of the product is really important because it motivates and encourages to touch and feel the products.

Luxury can enhance the self concept of individual consumer (Suvarnasuddhi, 2007; Dubois, Laurent, Czellar, 2001). Luxury brands build up to become a part of the self in terms of identity where possessions influence their distinctiveness onto the individual and vice versa. By asserting that an object is ‘mine’, it is showing ownership and connection that the object is a reflection of the person (Suvarnasuddhi, 2007).

“Because an object is identified as luxury, consumers expect a superior good and experience to come out of it, gravitating the consumer into another level of consumption unique only to luxury brands” (Suvarnasuddhi, 2007). The luxury is a source of sensual pleasure where the consumers able to receive a pleasurable of excellence and refinement. It is not only about the quality but it also pleasant smell, touch, taste or hear. Hence, the consumption of luxury as hedonic experience allows the consumer to touch all the senses (Dubois, Laurent, Czellar, 2001; Barnier, Rodina, Florence, 2009). According to Sriviroj (2007), the youth significantly represent the hedonistic effect in their attitude towards luxury items which further show that group norms are not able to influence the youth. On the flip side, they can achieve self fulfillment by owning luxury goods. “They look for exclusive benefits and if products create an emotional value for consumers it represents that the product has been beneficial” (Sriviroj, 2007). The emotional value that the youth look for include pleasure, excitement and aesthetic beauty.

In conclusion, it was found that aesthetics was found to be importance to the study. It effects the purchase decision of generation Y on luxury fashion.

2.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY

Chapter 2 with regards to literature review is in essence a review on the findings and results of past researchers. An assessment of all the topics of interest is provided with an introduction to all the factors that have an influence over a consumer’s purchase of luxury goods. Chapter 2 started by providing an idea of the global luxury goods market followed by the first factor or variable of interest, which is the social influence by direct and indirect reference groups, followed by a detailed discussion on the other factors, such as the perceived conspicuous and perceived quality value on purchase decisions. Next, brand image was discussed. Lastly, the issue of aesthetics and its influence on the purchase of luxury goods was also discussed.

Various Impacts Of Tourism In Singapore

Singapore Government attaches great importance to the development of tourism, the tourism industry as unlimited resources. As early as 1964, Singapore set up a Tourism Promotion Board currently known as Singapore Tourism Board, to lead and promote the development of tourism in Singapore and to promote Singapore as an international tourist destination. The Singapore Tourism Board cooperation with relevant departments and make full use of favourable conditions for their great efforts to develop tourism. Currently, tourism has become one of a major engine economic growth in Singapore.

Singapore which was currently known as “Singapura” which “Lion City” has created a various tourism development in the past years. Singapore’s cultural and heritage tourism shows it is still very active in the old traditions. From the past, under the title to one of these ethnic minorities: Chinatown, Kampong Glam, Arab Street and Little India. First, you can enjoy Chinese antiques, traditional clothing, or Chinatown, calligraphy, and then there is a variety of spices in Little India to buy a loved one taste and a sari or some jewellery. Finally, get to Kampong Glam and Arab Street for bazaar-style shopping, and received the fine from Indonesia and Malaysia, hand-made batik.

Recent and upcoming attractions

Merlion Park, one of the famous tourist spots, is well known for its rich history. Many tourists are attracted to visit the Merlion Park. September 2008, Singapore hosted the annual F1 SingTel Singapore F1 Grand Prix marked the milestone in the history: it is the first street race in Asia, and the first night race in the world. Two long-awaited development of the entertainment is: Marina Bay Sands integrated resort (a world-class luxury resort hotel and conference facilities and high-end restaurants casino) and Resorts World, Sentosa, will house the first Universal Studios theme in Southeast Asia Park, the world’s largest marine life park, six hotels. This year, 2010, people are looking forward to the Gulf, including three Marina Bay Promenade gardens. To the garden to greet visitors to a super surprise and they will be dwarfed over the tree – the tree, measures up to 16 layers high. This lush looking the Bay Area will support is ‘in a garden’ dream city of Singapore.

(b) ROLES PLAYED BY SINGAPORE GOVERNMENT

Singapore is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Asia-Pacific region. Tourism industry is strengthening by the infrastructure developments, various events and the countries strategic location in the heart of region. Hence, the government has set up Singapore Tourism Board which has played a very significant role in assisting Singapore’s tourism industry to boom with success. The government sector played many roles and the 3 most significant roles are being the planner, promoter and developer.

Planner

Singapore government set up the Singapore Tourism Board (STB) to assists in the planning of every event being held, publications, developments and all the services needed on Singapore’s tourism industry. STB’s includes divisions of Manpower Development, Resource Development, Service Quality, Strategic Planning and Corporate Planning, under the Sector and Development Group, shape the long-term development of the tourism sector and enhance the role of being a planner of the tourism industry. Singapore government has planned many events to attract more tourist into Singapore and the co-ordination of these events have to go through serious planning to be able to be successfully held in Singapore. Due to the limited size of Singapore, the accommodation is limited to cater for a large number of tourists coming in. Singapore has taken part in major events like Formula 1, Chingay and many more. The upcoming event would be the youth Olympics. STB has to plan according to the peak and off-peak of their tourism period in order to have enough accommodation to accommodate for the number of tourists. In addition, the dates must go through planning to make sure it does not clash with other major events. As Singapore is considered small to host a major event, the availability of event venues is limited. Therefore, STB comes in place to take charge of these plans to ensure the possibility of Singapore being the host countries of these events. Hence, the Singapore government plays as a role of a planner and assists in the development of Singapore’s tourism industry.

Developer

After the process of planning, the government also plays a role in continuing with the plans and becomes a developer for Singapore’s tourism industry. Singapore government has done their part as a developer for its tourism industry by investing in basic infrastructure such as roads, sewage, bridges and many varieties of transportation. In addition, developing Singapore’s environment into a clean and fine city also improves the development of the tourism industry. Singapore government has used road tax to constantly upgrade the roads, invested in sewages and also building sufficient overhead bridges to ensure the safety environment. This has helped to in the tourism industry as tourist would have a good image of Singapore during their travel. Transportation is also a key factor for convenience of tourist that visits Singapore. The government has also invested in the train systems with clear signboards with multiple languages for tourist to have an easy way out to travel on their own around Singapore. In addition, buying tickets has also been made convenient by investing in automated machines to buy standard cards which can be refunded for cash after their trip. The machines have 4 different kind of language so that more tourists are able to understand the usage of the machine. Signboards are also made with clear illustrations of the locations of each stop of location to prevent tourist from getting lost. Also, road signs and directional signs are also in 4 languages at the airport and tourists spots to assist in their desired pathway. Singapore government has contributed generously in being the developer of Singapore and this has left many tourists with great impression while travelling in Singapore. These developments has ensured the comfort of tourist and made everything easy for them. This being compared to many countries like Japan or Europe, has out-shined them as only in the cities tourist are able to travel freely on their own but when they are out of the city, language and finding for directions has always become a worry for tourist to go on free and easy trips.

Promoter

Singapore Tourism Board which is a sector of the government’s contributions to Singapore’s tourism industry and it includes the responsibilities of the publicity and promoting tourism for potential tourist to attract them into travelling to Singapore. Government provides funding for tourism marketing campaigns. For example, STB organized an annual event – Great Singapore Sale, it is to promote tourism in Singapore. The government has also invested in promoting Singapore tourism in advertisements and gaining more opportunities on major events so that more tourists will be attracted to travel to Singapore. STB also changed its branding from “Uniquely Singapore” to “Your Singapore”, which will captivate more people to explore Singapore in a deeper sense.

Question 2

Various Impacts of Tourism in Singapore

Positive Economic Impacts

Creation of Job Opportunities with the opening of Integrated Resorts

As Singapore continues to aim to be the Leading Convention and Exhibition City in Asia, the country needs With the newest Integrated Resorts built, the Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa, there will be an over flowing opportunities for job employment may it be seasonal or permanent jobs. Singaporeans as well as foreigners are looking forward to have a wonderful experience working in these integrated resorts. “I think it helps us all. It makes everything smoother, more efficient and as I said, at the end of the day, the objective is to hire Singaporeans – Singapore jobs for Singaporeans. And I think we all clearly have that ambition in mind” (Roberts, 2010)

Increase in Tourism Receipts

The Singapore Tourism Board (STB), set out an ambitious amount of S$30 billion tourism receipts by 2015, which is triple increase from the amount last 2004, which is S$10 billion, not only that, and doubling the visitors arrival to 17 million with the help of S$2 billion Tourism Development Fund. (STB, 2010)

Table A: 2015 Targets

Indicator

2004

2015 Target

Tourism Receipts (S$ billions)

10

30

Visitors Arrivals (million)

8

17

Tourism Employment

150,000

250,000

(Singapore Tourism Board, 2010)

Negative Economic Impacts

Singapore has no natural resources therefore relying on imported goods and service which leads to leakage of revenue.

Singapore is a small developing country with no natural resources therefore relying on imported goods and service which leads to leakage of revenue. These leakages of revenue will lead to the inaccuracy measurement of the economic impact of tourism that is affected by tourism expenditure. (TMC School of Business, 2010)

Due to the lack of expertise and lack manpower, Singapore hires foreign workers which also cause economic leakage as they send money back to their home country.

Competition with other sectors in the destination

Resorts World Sentosa and Marina Bay Sands are the two newly-built integrated resorts in Singapore. They are both competing for who is the best, not only with their casinos, but also with the facilities and infrastructure. Mr. Lim says that “Marina Bay Sands is more to convention area whereas Resorts World got support which is the Universal Studios, and besides Universal Studios, there’s a lot more places to explore in Sentosa.” (Lim, 2010)

Positive Socio-cultural Impacts

Promoting and developing cultural relations and international cooperation

Through socialising and interacting with different kinds of people, Cross-cultural and Intercultural communication is being developed. It enhances the skills of the local residents to communicate to different types of tourist and how to handle situations relating to self-expression.

Preserving culture and heritage

Preservation of historical places and monuments, like the Merlion Park at the Marina Bay, Chinatown, Clarke Quay, National Museum of Singapore, Singapore Fort Siloso and many other places which shapes Singapore as a place with full of history and culture. (Dutta, 2008)

Negative Socio-cultural Impacts

Creation of Social Problems

There’s an overwhelming response from people since the opening of IRs. A lot of foreigners roll over to casinos during their free time. Whereas, local residents seems so relaxed in entering casinos without knowing there are eyes on them, which are related in these situations:

Loo Siew Wan, a 53-year taxi driver, managed to enter RWS, but was arrested because of impersonation by stealing his brother’s driving licence, theft, and giving false details to the police. (© Inter Press Service, 2010)

Loss of authenticity of culture and traditions

This is illustrated by demonstration effect which results adaptation to foreign influences and westernization. It is like following the dressing styles and lifestyle of the tourists or foreigners staying in the host country. “The demonstration effect is seen as a corruptor of values in places that have strong cultural influence and strict social norms.” (Winter, 2008) Example: A temple in Chinatown called Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, we know it’s a sacred place for worshipping, but then, nowadays, it became a tourist attraction. Some may see it as disrespect for the place, but most people will not care anymore.

Positive Environmental Impacts

Singapore has earned the name of Garden City after decades of planning and cultivation. (MND.gov, 2010) There are more development of such gardens coming up like Gardens by the bay, a Singapore waterfront gardens at Marina Bay and the creation of Sky Park at the top of Marina Bay Sands. These places including our current nature reserves would be a major attraction for tourists as tourists like to visit places that are attractive, clean and not polluted. Therefore, more flora and fauna are planted to improve the landscape of Singapore.

The creation of SembCorp NEWater plant- one of the world’s largest water recycling facilities

We all know that Singapore doesn’t have enough natural resources unlike the neighbourhood countries, Indonesia and Malaysia. But with the opening of the fifth and biggest SembCorp NEWater plant, last May 3, 2010 in conjunction with PUB, there will be enough sustainability of 30% safe water supply for the Singapore’s total demand. NEWater will provide 50 million imperial gallons or 228, 000 cubic metres of NEWater per day. (SG Press Centre, 2010) It means in every hotel, or any accommodation places, restaurants, cruise ships, there will be an enough supply not only for the local residents, but for the guests or tourists who will be staying in Singapore.

Building of Infrastructures

As tourism plays a significant role in Singapore’s economy our government will spend on improving infrastructure and transportation to help visitors to have an easier accessibility. On 31 March 2010, Land Transport Authority, LTA has been honoured “The Best in Land Transport”. (LTA, 2010) Singapore government has also invested more money in the tourism industry to attract more foreign tourists. In my research and observation of Singapore in recent years, some of the tourism development programmes are:

The world’s largest observation wheel, The Singapore Flyer in 2008

The Formula 1 Grand Prix in 2008

Development of sports industry

Creating of Singapore Sports Hub at Kallang.

Building of Integrated Resorts like Resorts World Sentosa and Marina Bay Sands

Negative Environmental Impacts

Pollution and Littering

With a target of 17 million visitors coming to Singapore in 2015, (STB, 2010) there is a high chance of more air pollution from all the carbon emissions from planes and land transport. Littering would be more as well, as people will have the mindset of “This is not my country” and will tend to do whatever they want, including of spitting.

Depletion of Water Resources

Wasting of water resources in the hotel like having bathtub, laundry services and housekeeping services like frequently change of towels and bed linen will contribute to shortage of water in the future. “The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) notes that 1.2 billion people, almost 20 percent of the Earth’s population, are experiencing water scarcity.” (Black, 2008)

Question 3

SUSTAINABLE SINGAPORE: A LIVELY and LIVEABLE CITY

Singapore government has imposed three ways on how to develop sustainable tourism:

Efficient way – since Singapore has less resources, we will maximize all the resources we have and with less waste.

Clean way – developing, without harming and polluting the environment.

Green way – preserving energy, water resources, and natural heritage with the help of ecotourism

(Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, 2010)

STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN SINGAPORE

Promote a more sustainable lifestyle. Reduce water consumption, use water efficient devices and water conservation. Like in hotels, reduce the usage of towels or bed sheets. Guests can inform housekeepers that we don’t want to change our towels; in that case, we will be helping to conserve water.

Promote Resource-Efficient Buildings. Building SkyRise Greenery. Like planting trees and plants on the rooftop of buildings or hotel.

Enhance public cleanliness. As tourists know that Singapore is a “Fine City” there will have this thinking not to litter around. But sometimes, some tourists will not follow if they see that local residents don’t care.

Promote Ecotourism. Singapore has variety of national parks and wildlife reserves. Parks, like Zoological Gardens and Botanic Gardens, Pulau Ubin and Bukit Timah Reserves. Encourage nature loving tourists to appreciate the beauty of nature. To explore different adventurous activities like nature walks or hiking.

(National Parks Board, Singapore, 2009)

CONCLUSION

Singapore is developing and will still continue to develop in the next few years. Decades ago, there were many concept plans made that changed the whole image of Singapore. These concept plans have slowly cultivated Singapore as to what it is now. The first concept plan was made in 1971 which includes major infrastructure projects such as Singapore’s first MRT lines and the Changi Airport.

According to Mah Bow Tan, Minister for National Development, he said that after two decades, there is another concept plan made in 1991 which is empowering CBD to decentralise the commercial space in that area. (Mah, 2010)

Future concept plans of 2011 would focus on the softer side of Singapore’s soul as on infrastructure. Having a vibrant place to live in is ideal to make a real difference. There are three factors involved in concept 2011.

To make Singapore a more active and livelier place with vibrant music scene, outdoor restaurants, organic supermarkets, juice bars, rather than passive cultural amenities and big-ticket items. (Florida, 2010)

To have organic growth changes in “distinctive neighbourhoods” for inter-generational bonding and to develop diversity among people.

To recommend environmentally-friendly projects ranging from bike lanes and better public transportation to create a Heritage charter to preserve historic buildings.

With the recently opened Resorts World Sentosa and Marina Bay Sands, there will be creation of more jobs and more employment opportunities as it is a labour-intensive industry. Not only that, many tourists would come to visit Singapore for the new attractions like the casino and the Universal Studios, therefore increase in tourism receipts. As Marina Bay Sands is being built to cater to the MICE industry, more revenue would be expected as business travellers tend to spend more as they are not cost conscious.

Ethics in Video Games

EVOLUTION

Video games are one of the fastest growing industries that at least half of the people you know played video games. Video games evolve from a simple Pong game in 1970s to violent games such as Street Fighter (player play as a human like characters fought the other player until death) in the 1990s. As video games evolve, computer graphics become more realistic and the issues of ethics in video games arise. The media become aware of ethics in video game such as violence, addiction and sexual themes and more ethical questions about should game designers be more consider of what is designed and their games can affect the learning process and social development of many children who play their games. The main issues of video games are violence and crime, sexuality and social addiction. More and more video games contain high degree of violence. This violence in the game can lead to aggressive behavior, especially for children. From the graph at “Video Game Violence and Public Policy”, it shows that a teenager involved in a physical fight is more likely have plays a high violent game. This shows that violent game can lead to real life violence and it may leads to more aggressive actions such as crime. For example, “Playing the blame game” article, the graduate student who killed five students used to play a famous game call counter-strike (player play as first person shooter and the game involve shooting on the head and rewards for killing people). Some people think that violence in game is not acceptable but others think virtual life is different than real life so violence in game is acceptable.

ETHICS

The sexuality involves in the video game is a morality problem. It utilizes women as mere sexual tools to men’s insatiable which effect status of woman in the sociality. For example, the game Rapelay encouraged the player to force the woman they rape to have an abortion is reinforces rape culture. This contradict not just moral of video game but also moral of human behavior. A lot of sexual games also have issue such as racialism and sexual abuse.Playing video game can becomes an addictive or isolating activity. This addiction can have effects on falling behind in school and work. Game addiction is also what game company use as a strategy to keep player consume the game. Some children use many hours in a day to play video games, this may cause lack of interest in other stuff and social skills due to video game replaced friends and family. In the article of “Special Issues for Teens”, National Institute on Media and the Family stated ‘At-risk teenage boys spend 60% more time playing games, and they prefer more violent games than other teens.’ This leads back to the issue violence. This addiction also have effects on health, long time playing video game can result in dry eyes, headaches and more extreme failure to eat.The ethics in video game is mainly cause by game company does not about ethics and moral question. The reason the game designers create violence games is not because they wanted children to train children in the use of weapons and harden them emotionally to the act of murder by simulating the killing other players in a video game. The game designers is just follow what the company want them to do is to increase profit.

VIRTUAL WORLD

Virtual World

The sexuality involves in the video game is a morality problem. it utilizes women as mere sexual tools to men’s insatiable which effect status of woman in the sociality. for example, the game rapelay encouraged the player to force the woman they rape to have an abortion is reinforces rape culture. this contradict not just moral of video game but also moral of human behavior. a lot of sexual games also have issue such as racialism and sexual abuse.playing video game can becomes an addictive or isolating activity. this addiction can have effects on falling behind in school and work. game addiction is also what game company use as a strategy to keep player consume the game. some children use many hours in a day to play video games, this may cause lack of interest in other stuff and social skills due to video game replaced friends and family. in the article of “special issues for teens”, national institute on media and the family stated ‘at-risk teenage boys spend 60% more time playing games, and they prefer more violent games than other teens.’ this leads back to the issue violence. this addiction also have effects on health, long time playing video game can result in dry eyes, headaches and more extreme failure to eat.the ethics in video game is mainly cause by game company does not about ethics and moral question. the reason the game designers create violence games is not because they wanted children to train children in the use of weapons and harden them emotionally to the act of murder by simulating the killing other players in a video game. the game designers is just follow what the company want them to do is to increase profit.

An assistant professor at the rochester institute of technology andrew phelps thinks there is an ethical obligation for game designers to produce less violence and/or addictive game.internet virtual worlds can increase the number of consumer play games, which will have good impact on the game industry. this is supported by “kids and teens have pushed at least 6 immersive online worlds to over 2m uu/mth in the us”, susuan wu said “continuing down this path of improving the user experience of living and socializing online. this story is about human context, social proximity, and a sense of place.”internet virtual worlds is like second real life world, people will likely to spend more time on it and this will increase profit for the game company.inter virtual worlds can impact law in a way it is out of control. for example, a game is restricted to eighteen and over, it is easier for an underage person to lie on the internet to play the game. this can cause issues such as protecting children from violence and sexuality. as law stated people have obligation to pay tax but if a person selling goods and currency in the virtual world, it is harder to tax them.

Conclusion

Video game is a good entertainment tool but ethics in video game such as violence, sexuality; we must realize it is not just the problem of the developers. everyone has an obligation to find a solution and improve the environment. as internet virtual world evolve these few years, it is more important that player themselves behave ethical otherwise more ethical issue will rise in the game industry.

 

Why Do Children Need Protection From United Convention on Rights of the Child

“Rights” are things every child should have or be able to do. All children have the same rights. These rights are listed in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child started twenty years ago. Almost every country has agreed to these rights. All the rights are connected to each other, and all are equally important. Sometimes, we have to think about rights in terms of what the best is for children in a situation, and what is critical to life and the protection from harm. Millions of children in the world are victims of mistreatment, abuse and violence each year. They are abducted from their homes and schools and recruited into the army. They are trafficked into prostitution rings. The consequences can be devastating. Violence and abuse can kill. Often the children result in poor physical and mental health. They are also denied an education, or lead to homelessness or a sense of hopelessness. Some worst cases the children are forced into begging. Most of the time, children are helpless and are not able to defend themselves against any form of danger.

Children need love and protection from the moment they are born. They are not able to defend themselves and are also helpless little individuals who will not be able to look after themselves. They do not have the required capability to care for themselves. They need love and protection from adults for various reasons. The reasons are their psychological, spiritual and physical wellbeing; happiness and joy; safety and security; stability; inner strength, confidence and high self-esteem; a life free of fear and worries and lastly securing a bright future (Benjamim). A child who is not loved and cared for will feel neglected. They will feel that they are unworthy of love and will grow up to be disturbed adults. They will lack confidence, insecurity and therefore will not be able to perform to their potential. As they are not able to express their true feelings, they will hide in a corner or behave aggressively to show their anger. Love will give the strength and also peace of mind they need as they grow. Children’s basic needs must be met. They must know that there is an adult they can approach when they need help and support. They must feel that there is someone who will always be there for them and to love them completely. Even when children are being disciplined, they should know that it is out of love and that they are being protected from being hurt. Children who feel loved and protected will be happy and motivated about themselves. They will be able to achieve to their potential, trust and interact with the people around them. These children will grow into wise, strong, self-confident, respectful, reliable adults and conduct a healthy lifestyle. They will make sensible choices and lead a normal life. They will be able to build positive relationships and therefore create strong family bonds. They will pass the love and protection they received when they were young to their children. These are the reasons why children need the protection of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child.

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child was set up in 1945 by 51 countries. Today there are 192 member states. It was set up with several aims to benefit young children. The aims of the Convention are to set standards for the defense of young children against neglects and abuses that they face in countries all over the world every day. It is cautious in allowing for the different cultural, political and material realities among all the different countries. The most impotent factor to consider is for the best interest of the child. The Convention constitutes an assembling point and a useful tool for civil society and individual children, working for the protection and promotion of the rights of the child. The rights set out in the Convention can be generally grouped in three sections. The first section is Provision, which means that every child has the right to possess, receive or have access to certain things or services. For example, they are entitled to a name, a nationality, health care, education, play, and care for disabled children and also the orphans. The second section is Protection. This means that the child has the right to be protected from harmful acts and practices. For example, when they are separated from their parents, being used for commercial or sexual exploitation and when they are physically and mentally abused. The third section is Participation. The child has a right to be heard on decisions affecting their life. As their abilities progress and as a preparation for adult life, the child needs to have increasing opportunities in taking part in the social activities. For example, they should have freedom of speech and opinion. They should be allowed to choose their culture, religion and language (Hrea). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child also aims at protecting children from discrimination, neglect and abuse. It provides for the implementation of rights for children both during times of peace and war times. There are four general principles being conserved in the Convention. The principles also known as the key provisions focuses on Non-discrimination; Best interests of the child; Right to life, survival and development. They express philosophies the Convention is conveying and provides guidance for national programmes of implementation.

According to Krappmann (2009), it is important that many professionals who are working with young children must know the rights of a child. However, most often they do not know much what these rights for the child means. Now the rights of a child are spreading across the world and to other different professional people like judges, teachers, policemen, law-enforcement officers, medical staffs and social workers. Parents are also educated about the provisions of the Convention. Even children themselves know what their rights are. However, this knowledge has not ended the sufferings and difficulties faces by children but it is considered an appreciable start. More schools are starting to inform children about their rights and give them a chance to speak up in matters that concerns them. Then again as mentioned earlier it is not happening everywhere. On the other hand, awareness about who children are and what are their rights are being spread across the globe. There concrete changes taking place in the world. For instance, many laws have been coordinated with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child to set the law for Juveniles. Child rights have been included in new articles of constitutions and child codes. In most countries violating the rights of a child like punishing the child harshly or sexually abusing the child have been dealt with very severely. Juveniles’ and adults’ justice are being separated into individual systems in many countries. These progresses are not only the efforts of the supervising committee but many United Nation agencies and organisations have been contributing towards the process of making child rights a success. Governments are involved, not only in the implementation of child rights in their own country but also cooperating with other State Parties which needs resources.

There were case studies from Africa, where reports state that early child development was available in Africa. However, it was limited and was only available to very few people in Africa. Due to this problem, Europe set out a mission to change Africa. It identifies that religion and education will be the most promising means to save the continent and its people from their sufferings. They started the Euro-Western early child development programme in Africa. There are evidences that the Euro-Western early child development programmes are beginning to take shape in Africa (Pence and Nsamenang, 2008). This is one example that the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has made a difference to the lives of the children. Another example is that in July 2010, the Republic of Congo announced that the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has welcomed new measures to increase child protection and this is a major development for the Central African nation. Marianne Flach, UNICEF Representative in Congo said “This framework will better monitor the violation of children’s rights, abuses and help to improve the situation to build a protective environment for children.” UNICEF also noted that Africa’s legislation must be updated and coordinated with the new measures that were recently implemented. These national efforts will need more support.

The world has changed over the past 20 years and the challenges children face is different from those times to the present situation. Early childhood had changed and will continue to do so with the influence of technology and economic developments. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has made a difference to the lives of the children. However, the Convention still could help to strengthen children’s role in decision-making processes and demand that they are given a voice in reviews of their placements.

What Is Spiritual Formation?

When asking the question, what is spiritual formation, there can be great difficulty in recognizing the specific area of focus. This would be due to the great amount of variety within the sphere of such a topic regarding the presuppositions many people can bring to it. However there is a consistent undercurrent that ties the definitions together into a relative coherent understanding. According to Dallas Willard, spiritual formation is the process where one moves and is moved from self-worship to Christ-centered self-denial as a general condition of life in God’s present and eternal kingdom. [1] In this, there is a more detailed analysis in describing its meaning. Spiritual formation begins with God and the relationship with him and fellow brethren. It is by virtue of the Holy Spirit’s work in regeneration and conforming the believer into the image of Christ through his indwelling, guiding, gifting, filling, and empowering those saved for God’s glory. The foundation of such a formation is found through the Scripture as the only and primary source of all truth. The responsibility of the Christian is a relentless pursuit in being Christ-like in all facets of life through a new nature. Such formation is the fruit of what one has already become, an adopted child of God, and not works alone to achieve an imaginary level of spiritual attainment. The methodology of such an endeavor is not prescribed as a checklist for every believer, but rather differentiates for each person as God sees fit for them.

Biblical Instruction

As stated in the introduction there is a number of reference points pertaining to Biblical instruction regarding spiritual formation. Although such terminology is not specifically found in every instance, the idea in what it represents is plentiful. The primary area many refer to is the fruits of the Spirit in Galatians 5:22-23. With this area of Scripture, the results are listed from leading a life under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. It would be considered a measure of progress in some ways to see how one is coming through the sanctification process. It should be noted, however, that there would be an ebb and flow to such a device in that some seasons may be more fruitful in patience and love as opposed joy and peace introspectively. In order to attain such fruits however, one must be diligent to know the One in whom he is following. A thorough study of His attributes that which makes up His character, is imperative in attaining any growth whatsoever. Through such knowledge is a child of God to begin the process in a more fruitful way than foregoing it. Without this concrete foundation, much of the growth will be experience alone, which is not biblical. Knowing who Christ is through his attributes is the only way one can attain the spiritual growth as guided by the Holy Spirit.

From this one should then go to the Sermon on the Mount in helping to determine what a Christian should look like. The descriptive values in what and how the Christian should be would more readily translate into the fruits seen previously. Christ teaches what the believer must be like as a standard of behavior and life within the heart in accordance with the holiness of God. Being separate from the world and unto Him is a fundamental truth that without, one cannot attain the fruit of the Spirit. The division of what should be done and what should be avoided, in essence, what delineates the world from those chosen of God instills the rock of truth to rely upon

Personal Experience

In reflecting upon one’s own experience in relation to spiritual formation, a great number of those who call themselves Christian can only describe such a term as prayer time and possibly praise and worship in certain circles. For the most part it is classified as an emotional experience one has with the work of the Spirit. The form that it arrives is through clearing the mind or through music in service. These functions among others are more related to tradition than Scripture. In personal experience, it becomes a more concrete arena. What Scripture says to do, do. What Scripture says not to do, do not do. In this there is a certain requirement to know the difference and that itself can only be accomplished through much work and study in Scriptures. Most who identify as being Christians who want a greater awareness of God actually looks for and attains a easier yet non-Biblical methodology of self-interpretation apart from Scripture. There is no work in exegetical discernment and simple prayer in acquiring a greater knowledge of God which, then, leads to the greater awareness of Him. One cannot occur apart from the other, no matter how trivial the spiritual exercises may be.

Coincidentally, it is in Westerhoff’s work that sees both sides of the coin blended into one unifying theme. In his chapter discussing the development of spiritual discipline, there are areas that are beneficial to the Christian and areas that are not. Coincidentally, those that do help deal more with the external as opposed to the internal. Finding a time and place that is consistent in reading Scripture helps to develop a consistency which coincides with repetition in going back to the Bible daily. Journaling helps in recalling areas one believes the Spirit is taking him in relation to any given question or issue currently being dealt with. It also provides a timeline of posterity for future generations to read through. A spiritual friend which is a fancy way of saying Christian Brother is good for edification and encouragement through prayer and study time. Coupled with these areas are exercises that dwell on the internal of the person involved. Picturing, pondering, and praying of the Lectio Divina borders on the Eastern Mysticism and Catholic heritage of attempting to draw closer to God through works. In clearing the mind of no thought, breathing exercises, good posture, and repeating a mantra to better focus on Scripture only clears the way for self-reflection unto sanctification. [2]

Conclusion

The entire effort of Spiritual Formation as a whole combines the Biblical with the non-Biblical under the contemplative ministry. It is rooted in Catholic pietistic mysticism with its emphasis on discipleship. It is espoused of righteousness by works by attempting to reach God by its own strength. Many Christians, who do not study as they should, take for granted what is spoken to them by leaders in the church in whom they trust, and assume it is true. It has been attributed to CH Spurgeon of the saying, “Discernment is not simply a matter of telling the difference between what is right and wrong; rather it is the difference between right and almost right.” It is in this piece of wisdom the Christian should reflect upon when determining whether they should follow to the letter that which is summarily grouped under Spiritual Formation.

History of Terrorism

Terrorist acts or the threat of such action have been in existence for centuries. Historical examples of terrorist events can be traced, in writing, to biblical times; the Romans were known to have both practiced and been the recipients of terrorist activities. (Carr, 2003).

The earliest known organizations that exhibited aspects of modern terrorism were the Zealots of Judea, and the Sicarri, theand Jewish groups active during the Roman occupation of the first century Middle East. The preferential weapon of the Sicarri (literally, Dagger Men) was the sica, a short dagger which they used it for murdering those those (mainly Jews) they believed to be traitorsy deemed apostate and, thus, selected for execution.The Zealots, who generally targeted Romans and Greeks, gave the modern term Zealot, one translation of which is “a fanatical partisan.”. (Merriam-Webster, 1984).

Such killings usually took place in daylight and in front of witnesses, with the perpetrators using such acts to send a message to the Roman authorities and the Jews who collaborated with them. This tactic was adopted by subsequent generation of groups which are now known as terrorists.

The Assassins, also deemed as a terrorist organization, were an eleventh century offshoot of a Shia Muslim sect known as the Ismailis.They also perhaps also recognized the significance of high publicity as do contemporary terrorists.

Like the Zealots-Sicarri, the Assassins were also given to stabbing their victims (generally politicians or clerics who refused to adopt the ‘purified version of Islam’ they were forcibly spreading) (Bugress, 2003; Rapaport, 1965). The term Assassin (from where the modern term assassination is derived) literally meant ‘hashish eater’- , -which is in reference to the ritualistic drug-taking, they were perhaps falsely rumored to indulge in prior to undertaking their murderous missions. (Bugress, 2003; Rapaport, 1965). Often, the Assassins’ deeds were carried out at religious sites on holy days – a tactic intended to publicize their cause and incite others to it.Similar to the numerous religiously motivated terrorists nowadays, they also looked at their deaths on such actions as sacrificial. Even though both the Zealots and the Assassins operated in the past, they are relevant today: First as forerunners of modern terrorists in aspects of motivation, organization, targeting, and goals. Secondly, although both were eventual failures, the fact that they are remembered hundreds of years later, demonstrates the deep psychological impact they caused.

Sacrifice was also a central element of the killings carried out by the Thugees (from which the word ‘thug’ is derived). They were the followers of an Indian religious cult which ritually strangled their victims (usually travelers chosen at random) as an offering to the Hindu goddess of terror and destruction, Kali. In this case, the intent was to terrify the victim (a vital consideration in the Thugee ritual) rather than influencing any external audience.

The Thugees were active from the seventh until the mid-nineteenth centuries. They were known to have committed as many as one million murders. Perhaps they were the last example of religiously-inspired terrorism until the phenomenon re-emerged a little over 20 years ago. According to David Rapport, ‘Before the 19th century, religion provided the only acceptable justifications for terror.’ (Robespierre, 2009).

Probably all holy texts (not just the Qur’an) have been conveniently interpreted to justify violence against others. Robiespierre described terror as the ’emanation of virtue’.

An additional tendency at the end of 19th century was the ever-increasing wave of nationalism throughout the world, which incorporated the nation (the identity of the citizens) and the political state. Simultaneously, the states began to stress upon the national identities of the citizens who were conquered or colonized, much like the Jews during the period of Zealots who either chose to integrate or fight back. Over the last several decades, the most well-known, Irish nationalistic struggle has still been unresolved. Nationalism, similar to Communism was the most ideological force of the 20th century. (Burgess, 2003).

NATIONALISTS AND ANARCHISTS

The English word ‘terrorism’ comes from the regime ‘de la terreur’ that prevailed in France from 1793-94. In the beginning it was a device of the state, and was intended to strengthen the authority of the new-found radical government, shielding it from elements thought to be ‘subversive’. Always value-laden, terrorism was, initially, a positive term. The French revolutionary leader, Maximilien Robespierre, viewed it as vital if the new French Republic was to survive its infancy, and proclaimed in 1794 that:

Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible; it is therefore an emanation of virtue; it is not so much a special principle as it is a consequence of the general principle of democracy applied to our country’s most urgent needs.(Hoffman, 1988).

Under such rationalization, some 40,000 people were executed by guillotine, a fate Robespierre and his top lieutenants would themselves suffered. In the meantime terrorism started to take negative undertones which it carries today. (AltThough the terrorists themselves do not consider themselves to be unconstructive or harmful to society). Edmund Burk, who demonized the French revolutionary practitioners, made the term popular in English writings.

As a result of the French Revolution,new distinct concepts of nationalism and citizenship were evolved, which also led to the development of a new form of primary secular terrorism. The Italian revolutionary Carlo Pisacane’s theory of the ‘propaganda of the deed’, which recognized the utility of terrorism to deliver a message to an audience other than the target, and draw attention and support to a cause was a hallmark to this new form of terrorism. (Laqueur, 1999).

Pisacane’s thesis was first put into practice by the Narodnaya Volya (NV), which was not in itself new and would probably have been recognizable to the Zealots-Sicarri and the Assassins. In 1878, a Russian populist group, (which was described as to Peoples Will) was formed to be in opposition to the Tzar’s regime. The group’s most famous decisive action was the assassination of Alexander II inon 1 March 1881, which also effectively sealed their fate by incurring bringing upon themselves, the full wrath of the Tsarist regime. Unlike most other terrorist groups, the Volya went to great lengths to avoid innocent deaths, carefully choosing their targets; usually state officials who symbolized the regime. Often compromising operations rather than causing what would today be termed collateral damage. It is also called ‘bluecalled ‘blue on blue’ by the military.

Volya actions inspired radicals in different places. Anarchist terrorist groups were particularly enamored by the example set by the Russian populist Volya. Nationalist groupslike the ones in the Balkans and Ireland decided to resort to terrorism to meet their goals. As the 19th century gave way to the 20th century, terrorists’ attacks were carried out as far as India, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire. Two US presidents and a succession of other world leaders were victims of assassination by various radical elements often affiliated to groups but operating without their explicit knowledge or support. 9 (Stern, 2001).

As in Europe , terrorism arrived on American shoresalso arrived in America before the twentieth century Not only were Anarchists active in America throughoutall through the 1880s, but during the American Civil War;, had seen acts deserving of the name, committed on both sidesAnarchists as were also instrumental in the formation of the Ku Klux Klan to fight the reconstruction effort which followed. (Hoffman, 1988).

TERRORISM AND THE STATE SPONSORED TERRORISM

Long before the outbreak of World War I in Europe in 1914, what would later be termed as state-sponsored terrorism had already started to manifest itself in Europe. For instance, many officials in the Serbian government and military were involved in supporting, training and providing arms to the various Balkan groups which were active prior to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand inon 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo; an act carried out by an activist from one such group, the ‘Young Bosnians’ credited with setting in progress the chain of events which led to the war itself. (Guelke, 1998). Similarly, the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (MRO) survived largely ‘because it became for all intents and purposes a tool of the Bulgarian government, and was used mainly against Yugoslavia as well as against domestic enemies.’ ( Walter Laqueur )that it became for all intents and purposes a tool of the Bulgarian government, and was used mainly against Yugoslavia as well as against domestic enemies.’ Such examples clearly illustrate that state-sponsored terrorism is not a new phenomenon.

The events in 1930s led to a fresh wave of political assassinations which justified the word ‘terrorism’. This led to proposals at the League of Nations for conventions to prevent and punish terrorism as well as to the establishment of an international criminal court (neither of which came to being as they were overshadowed by the events which eventually led to World War II).12 (Volkan, 1997). Simultaneously, in between years of war, state terrorism increased; a reference to the oppressive measures imposed by various totalitarian regimes, particularly in Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Stalinist Russia.

While terror from above, from the state’s ruling elite, was the predominant form of terror from Roman times through the French Revolution up to the present, even in the twentieth century, terror from above, such as the Hitler’s Holocaust, Stalin’s purges, Pol Pot’s Killing Fields, the Rwandan massacres, and ethnic cleansing in Bosnia, has clearly claimed many more lives than the terror exerted from below. (Volkan, 1997).

In the beginning of twentieth century, the term terrorism started to become synonymous with terror acts from below that ‘attempt to disrupt, overthrow, or simply express rage against the existing political order’. 14(Reich, 1990).Generally, academics agree that modern terrorism from below first surfaced as an identifiably notable entity with the emergence of the Narodnaya Volya (the People’s Will) in Russia, at the close of the nineteenth century. This particular group harboured intellectual ideologies, and they believed that by creating an institution of the state, they could ferment a revolution to completely cleanse the existing system. They tried to accomplish this by terrorist acts such as assassinating numerous Tsarist officials, including, in 1881, the Tsar Alexander II himself. (Parry, 1976).Even though they possessed an enduring hatred for their victims, this group showed remorse and regret for their actions, inflicting self-torture and beatings as punishment for taking the lives of their victims. In fact, they were so concerned, selective and meticulous about only killing their intended victim that if their target was accompanied by a family member, or if there was a danger that innocents might be killed, they would call off the attack and wait for a better situation to present itself. (Laqueur, 2001). But they continued their actions because they comprehended that, ‘political terror is unavoidable, moral and effective and that organized terror movements are the preferred alternative to a blind, witless insurrection of “dumb people”.’ (Ivianski, 1987).

More recently, other governments, such as those of military dictatorships which ruled some South American countries in recent years, or the regimes in Zimbabwe, have also been open to charges of using such methods as instruments of state. Some commentators, such as Bruce Hoffman, argue that, ‘such usages are generally termed “terror” in order to distinguish that phenomenon from “terrorism”, which is understood to be violence committed by non-state entities.’ (Hoffman, 1988). However not everyone agrees that terrorism should be considered a non-governmental undertaking.

For instance, Jessica Stern insists that states in deliberately bombarding civilians as a means of demoralizing enemy, states have indeed resorted to terrorism. According to Stern, such instances include not only the Allied strategic bombing campaigns of World War II, andbut the American dropping of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that ended the Pacific phase of that conflict. (Stern, 2003). This issue remains controversial, with individuals such as the World War II British Air Chief ‘Bomber’ Harris was simultaneously defended and despised for his belief in the utility and morality of strategic bombing. It bears similarity to the modern-day concept of collateral damage.

TERRORISM SINCESINCE WORLD WAR II

In By contrast, the predominanceprevalence of non-state groups active in the terrorism that emerged in the wake of World War II is less arguable. The immediate focus onfor such activitiesty primarily mainly shifted from Europe itself to various colonies in the continents.Across the Middle East Asia and Africa, emerging nationalist movements resisted European attempts to resume colonial business as usual after the defeat of the coalition Axis powers.As the colonialists had been recently expelled from or subjugated in their overseas empires by the Japanese, it provided psychological support to such indigenous uprisings by dispelling the myth of European invincibility.

Often, these nationalist and anti-colonial groups conducted guerilla warfare, which differed from terrorism mainly in that it tended towards larger bodies of ‘irregulars’ operating along more along towards military lines than their terrorist partners in the other regions.Similarly in China and Indochina, such forces conducted insurgencies against the Kuomintang regime and the French colonial government respectively. In other places, like the Algeria, campaigns were fought, in both rural and urban areas, using guerilla warfare, for independence from French rule

Struggle for independence against British and French rule also took place in Kenya, Malaysia, Cyprus and Palestine. (Both the French and the British bore the brunt of this new wave of terrorism, a consequence of their large pre-war empires). These struggles were conducted by groups who can more readily be described now as terrorist. These groups quickly learned to exploit the mushrooming globalization of the world’s media. According to Hoffman:

They were first to recognize the publicity value inherent in terrorism and to choreograph their violence for an audience far beyond the immediate geographical loci of their respective struggles. (Hoffman, 1988).

Furthermore, in some cases (such as in Algeria, Cyprus, Kenya and Israel) terrorism perhaps helped such organizations in the successful realization of their goals. As such these nationalist and anti-colonial groups are notable for any wider understanding of terrorism.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, terrorist numbers swelledincreased to include not only nationalists, but also those motivated by ethnic and ideological considerations. Nationalists groupslike the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), and its several affiliates came into existence. Moreover, other groups mushroomed such as the Basque ETA and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The IRA also comprised of organizations such as the Italian Red Brigade, and the Red Army faction in Germany (then West Germany). With As with the emergence of modern terrorism almost a century earlier, the United States couldwas not remain immune from this latest wave of terrorism, although there the identity-crisis-driven motivations of the white middle-class Weathermen starkly contrasted with the ghetto-bred malcontent of the Black Panther Movement. (Lacqueur, 2001).

Many of the terrorist groups of this period readily adopted methods that would allow them to publicize their goals and accomplishments internationally.The Palestinians were among one of the well-known groups who pioneered the hijacking of a jet airliner as a mode of operation and publicity. One such group, Black September, staged what was (until the terrorist attack of 9/11, 2001) perhaps the greatest terrorist publicity coup then seen, with the seizure and murder of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympic Games.Such incidents resulted in the Palestinian groups providing the inspiration, in some cases, mentorship and training, for many of the new generation of terrorist’s organizations.

Most of these organizations today have reduced their operations or ceased to exist altogether, whileothers, such as the Palestinian, Northern Irish and Spanish Basque groups, motivated by more enduring causes, remain active today, although some of them now have made moves towards political rather than terrorist methods.Meanwhile, by the mid-1980s, state-sponsored terrorism re-emerged, the catalyst for the series of attacks against American and other Western targets in the Middle East. Countries such as Iran, Iraq, Libya and Syria came to the forefront came to be supposedly believed to be the main sponsors of terrorism as a popular belief. Falling into a related category were those countries, such as North Korea, who directly participated in covert acts of what could be described as terrorism.[xviii] (Guelke, 1998).

In the recent years the re-emergence of the religiously inspired terrorist attacks are common. But the state-sponsored terrorism remains a concern of the international community today (especially its Western constituents), although it has been somewhat overshadowed.

The latest manifestation of this trend began in 1979, when the revolution that transformed Iran into an Islamic republic; the West blamed Iran to use and support terrorism as a means of propagating its ideals beyond its own borders. (Hoffman, 1988). Very soon the trend had spread to places as far as Japan and the United States, and to other major world religions as well as many minor cults.

Sarin gas used in Tokyo subway attack in 1995 may not have been the first breach of the psychological barrier in the use of toxic/chemical agents becausesmallpox-infected clothing was used by the Pilgrim Fathers against the indigenous tribes of North America. Also, plague-infected bodies were launched into besieged cities and used to pollute water supplies in the fourteenth century. The same year Oklahoma bombing took place in USA. At this stage, the complex mix of motivations included religion. But it was the 9/11 al Qaeda attack which made the world realize, particularly the United States, just how risky this latest transformation had become.

CONTEMPORARY TERRORISM

At present, terrorism influences events on the international level to a degree which was not previously achieved. This was primarily the outcome of the 9/11 attacks in 2001 on the World Trade Center, which destroyed the symbolic Twin Towers; and threatened the Pentagon. It thus dented the stronghold of America. Most Americans came to believe that an unmatched era of terrorism had erupted and the world had changed forever. Some observers of the event even believed that the daring, yet tragic, events of this particular day should be considered as an epochal moment in the history of the world. (24) (Carr, 2002). Soon after 9/11, US President George Bush declared the start of a Global War on Terrorists: an open-ended war with an undefined terminal objective. In a speech to the Congress, he committed all resources at his disposal, ‘every means of diplomacy, every tool of intelligence, every instrument of law enforcement, and every necessary weapon of war’ (Bertrand, S, 2003) to defeating America’s newest adversary in that nation’s ‘first war of the twenty-first century’. (26)(Mandelbaum, 2001).However, for most people in the world, terrorism was not new and these events, while spectacular and disturbing, did not constitute the dawn of a new era in terrorist activities. On the contrary, the attack became a continuous and developing reality for the world, which was present in different forms for centuries. Hence, for most of the world, terrorism was familiar and acceptable as an additional form of traditional warfare. (Henrichon, 2003). Still, for most North Americans and many other Western observers, the radical novelty of the 9/11 terrorist attacks ‘represented a new form of terrorism for the 21st century”. (Deschenes, 2003).

Since then, in the United States at least, terrorism has largely been equated to the threat posed by al Qaeda, a threat inflamed not only by the spectacular and deadly nature of the 9/11 attacks themselves, but by the fear that future strikes might be even more deadly and perhaps employ weapons of mass destruction.

The worldwide threat of terrorism by al Qaeda and its franchises, to a large extent remained egocentric, and were seen as the rhetoric of the US administration concerning a so-called ‘Global War against Terrorism’. This was far from unique, considering the implications that al Qaeda in fact intended to start a global revolution. For instance the general public of countries such as Colombia or Northern Ireland that had long faced terrorism was more preoccupied with when and where the next FARC REVOLUTIONARY ARMED FORCES OF COLOMBIA ( FARC or FARC-EP, is a Marxist-Leninist revolutionary guerrilla organization based in Colombia. They have fought in the ongoing Colombian Civil War for more than 40 years)or Real Irish Republican Army attacks would occur rather than where the next al Qaeda hit will descend.

Thus, the above reflections indicate, terrorism goes beyond al Qaeda, which it not only predates but will also outlive. Hence if terrorism is to be tackled efficiently, any consideration of handling it must be seen beyond the threat which is presently posed by this particular organization. Consequently, without a broad-based approach, this threat of terrorism will not only be difficult to resolve, but may become uncontrollable.

THE EVOLUTION OF TERRORISM IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Terrorism is continuously changing. While at the surface it remains ‘the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear…’it is fast becoming a major strategic tool of the opposing forces. In the twenty-first century, it has become the most predominant irregular warfare strategy. It is easily adaptable to changes in facilities available to the terrorists, in order to operate, acquire finances, and evolve new capabilities; thereby developing a different relationship with the world at large.

Two major events in the first half of the twentieth century predisposed the nature of present-day conflicts. The effects of two World Wars inflamed passions and hopes of nationalists throughout the world, and severely damaged the legitimacy of the international order and governments. During the earlier decades of the twentieth century nationalism and radical political ideologies were the major developmental forces acting upon terrorism. After World War I the Treaty of Versailles redrew the map of Europe by breaking up the Austro-Hungarian Empire and thus created new nations. It recognized the rule of self-determination for nationalities and ethnic groups. The minorities and ethnicities not receiving recognition to campaign for independence or autonomy were thus encouraged. Nevertheless, in most cases self-determination was limited to European nations and ethnic groups and deprived the others, especially the colonial assets of the major European powers, creating bitterness and setting the stage for the long conflicts of the anti-colonial period.
The Arab nationalists particularly felt that they were betrayed. Believing they were promised post-war independence, they were doubly disappointed: first when the French and British were given authority over their lands; and then especially when the British allowed Zionist immigration into Palestine in keeping with a promise contained in the Balfour Declaration. In the last two decades, terrorists have committed tremendously violent acts for so-called political or religious reasons. Their political ideologies range from the extreme left to the extreme right. For example, the far left can consist of groups such as Marxists and Leninists who propose a revolution of workers led by revolutionary elite. On the distant right, one finds dictatorships which typically believe in an amalgamation of state and business leadership. Consequently, all Arabs have been united in their opposition to the State of Israel and to the Western Powers, particularly the United States. The Western world feel feels equally a sense of guilt and remorse for the treatment of the Jews during the Second World War. (Berman, 2003). Consequently, the Western powers, under the patronage of the United Nations, have championed the Israeli right to a homeland at the expense of the Palestinians. (Hoffman, 1988). On the other hand, equally important has been the growth of Wahhabism in the Arab World. The indignation of the Wahhabis was initially directed, not against Western and colonial sources, but against those practitioners of Islam whom they believed were degrading and betraying the religion from within. The Wahhabi sect became true Islamic zealots who sought to eliminate anything or anyone who failed to meet the strict standards of their belief of purity and Islamic authenticity. (Hoffman, 1988). Even though initially a creation of eighteenth century Arabian Islam, Wahhabism has flourished because of its association with the ruling parties in most Arab countries. These particular regimes were installed by the Western powers when the various countries were created, because these particular Arab leaders had either granted the European powers with legitimacy during their colonial rule of the region; or had supported the Allied armies during the two World Wars. Under the old Arab system, social injustice and power were limited. However, with the new structure of states, the oil wealth, and the prevalence of modern communications, the inequality gap has been widened and the discrepancies have become much more obvious.Hence, ‘lacking any other outlet, new and growing discontents find expression in religious extremist movements’ (Hoffman, 1988), like the so called Islamic Fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood and terrorist groups like Al Qaeda. In contrast, for the Palestinian movements, which had concentrated and limited their efforts in the Middle East against Israel and for the repossession and recreation of an independent Palestinian state, these new organizations have a worldwide reach. Their supporter’s believe that the remedy for all of the ills of modernization is to return to true Islam. This thought process, included the abolition of all laws and social borrowings from the West and the restoration of the Islamic Holy Law, the Shari’a (Berman, 2003). Their aim was not only to remove the Western intruders from their homelands; they also wanted to transport their message through violent means into the heart of the Western nations, especially the hegemonic United States, ‘their most dangerous enemies, as they see it, are the false and renegade Muslims who rule the countries of the Islamic world and who have imported and imposed infidel ways on Muslim peoples’. (Lewis, 2003). In addition to the traditional terrorist groups, the nationalists, and the religious, the 1980s and 1990s also saw a growth of terrorist groups with a variety of motivations, such as narco-terrorists, eco-terrorists, anti-abortionists, and animal liberationists. Some terrorists were simply motivated by common criminal activities. (Laqueur, 1999). Religious inspired terrorism has a universal theoretical basis. The patterns of religious violence of the Sikhs could be exactly that of Irish Catholics; or Shiite Muslims in Palestine; or a fundamentalist Christian bomber of abortion clinics in the United States. (Juergensmeyer, 2001).

Special interest groups include people on the radical fringe of many legitimate causes; e.g., people who use terrorism to uphold antiabortion views, animal rights, and radical environmentalism. These groups consider that violence is morally justified to achieve their objectives.

With the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the end of Cold War in the early 1990s, the features of international terrorism took on a new face. The changing geopolitical situation, following the end of the East-West conflicts, a third radical concept has evolved in the form of twentieth century terrorism. There was no Soviet Union, no Warsaw Pact, no Cold War, and no consensus on what came next. (Lacqueur, 1999). However, it was now clear that the Soviets were no longer available to provide financial support or ammunitions to terrorist organizations or to their sponsoring states. (Bell, 1999).However, instead of retreating into their own nationalistic or religious cocoons, some of these terrorist groups adapted and evolved into truly global transnational organizations.

As a result, counter terrorist organizations are not confronting a specific state, nor are they confined to their old norms of understanding and operations. In addition, today’s terrorist groups are very well-financed. (Kushner, 1998). Such transnational groups no longer rely on handouts from sponsoring states, but, instead, have developed exceptional methods of gaining and handling their financial resources. Today robbery and ransom are replaced by high-tech criminal businesses, such as growing drugs; fine processing and distribution operations; and, finally, money laundering through legitimate businesses. (Combs, 2003). The modern terrorist is also very well-trained and well-educated. They have not only learnt from their past experiences, but also from military and criminal training methods, and integrated them into their own training programs. The former independence and isolation of many terrorist groups has given way to complex, multilayered, transnational organizational structures, resembling the corporate hierarchy of a multinational corporation. Lastly and most significantly, today’s terrorist groups are said to have access to the knowledge of highly sensitive destructive weapons; and have the ability to use Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs), such as chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weaponry, although use of this type of armaments is still abhorrent to many terrorists. (Schweitzer, 1998).

The use of terror has, throughout history, been known as an effective technique to achieve political, criminal, religious and ideological aims. The underlying objective to use the terror was aptly captured by the fourth century BC Chinese strategist, Sun Tzu, ‘…kill one, frighten ten thousand’.

‘The Anatomy of Terror’ (Sinclair, 2003) indicates that history is replete with examples of the use of terror in the pursuit of religious aims (e.g. the massacres by the Crusaders); material aims (e.g. the ‘Stranglers’ of Southern India who terrorized road travellers, and the Mafia); quasi-moral, and ideological aims (e.g. General Bedford’s supremacist Ku Klux Klan and the ‘Shining Path’); state and political aims (e.g. the Tzarist Okrhana and the Nazi Geheime Staatspolizei); and in the current context, religio-political aims (e.g. Al Qaeda and Hamas).

‘Terror’ is easier to define than ‘terrorism’. Over 100 definitions of terrorism have been evolved. Sinclair gave interesting examples of the early use of biological and chemical agents as means of inducing fear and terror. These include the use of poison gas by the Spartans during the siege of Plataea in 428 BC; the use of smallpox infected materials by the Pilgrim Fathers from England to conquer the indigenous populations of North America; and bubonic plague-infected corpses that were launched by cannon against the Genoese in the mid-14th century.

The recent examples of the military use of toxic and infectious agents are: dissemination of pulmonary agents, vesicants during the First World War; and the distribution of containers of anthrax, typhus and cholera by the Japanese against the Chinese in the Second World War.

Biochemical terrorist attacks on civilians include the use of chemical weapons by Saddam Hussein against the Kurds; and recently the deliberate contamination of salad bars in the US state of Oregon with Salmonella typhimurium by the Rajneeshee cult; the anthrax ‘scares’ through the US postal services, which followed the attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon; and the sarin gas attack by the radical Japanese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, on the Tokyo underground rail system. The Sarin nerve gas attack was the first case of the breaching of the psychological barrier against the use of non-conventional terrorist weapons such as WMDs. This event represented the last of the four revolutionary incidents which deeply influenced the evolution of terrorism in the twentieth century. Fortunately, to date, no other group has chosen to follow their action.As the psychological barrier has been crossed, the possibility that the WMDs might be used again some day in the near future is soaring high. (Alexander & Klien, 2006).This possibility of use of the new WMD terrorism has been termed as ‘Super-Terrorism’. It is described ‘as the committing of violent acts using advanced technological tools to cause massive damage to populations and/or to the public and private support networks’. (Howard, 2003). A variety of WMD weapon choices are available such as cyber-terrorism Schweitzer, 1998); chemo-terrorism; or bioterrorism, and may be one of the choices adopted by religious or right-wing terrorist groups.

The members of terrorist organizations believe that their mission is divinely ordained. They consider their struggle between good and evil; believers and non-believers; justice and injustice; and order and chaos.In secular terrorism, the rewards of victory are finite; but in religious terrorism, (also included are freedom fighters) they are infinite, national determination is often believed to lead to paradise. (Kushner 1998).Acquisition of this form of reward is highly motivating and might encourage them to go for the nuclear weapons.On the other hand, the non-religious groups are not as motivated as their rewards are not holy. This group of terrorists usually view themselves as being anti-nuclear, environmentalists and nationalists. As a result, they realize that such massive destruction would not only go against their cherished beliefs and value systems, but it would also be counterproductive to winning over the people to their cause. (Laqueur, 1996).

The IRA and Sinn Fein are now able to merge legitimate politics with the threat of terrorist coercion and intimidation. The international community is presently unsuccessful to face up to its responsibility to cooperate to combat terrorism. The threatened use of WMDs could result in large-scale losses (Cameron, 1999); consequently, counterterrorist measures must be evolved to adequately respond to this ever-growing terrorist threat. (Cameron, 1999). In South-Asia, nationalism is considered to be the devotion and dedication to the interests or culture of a group of people or a nation. The nationalists prominently share a common ethnic background and hope to establish or regain a homeland. The authorities of secular governments are often rejected by the religious groups, as they consider their legal systems based on their religious beliefs as illegitimate. They often view modernization efforts as corrupting influences on their traditional culture for example in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Balochistan, a province of Pakistan bordering Afghanistan which has been infiltrated over the years by non-Pakistani religious extremists groups. Consequently, the unrest in Northern Areas of Pakistan has had a destabilizing influence on the political governments. Similar uprisings of religious extremists have been observed in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and China.

Terrorism is not novel to mankind. It is an ancient phenomenon, which has become a common feature of the 21st century, raising a host of complex moral and practical issues. Sadly, But it is athe fact remains that todaytoday, that it has prejudiced the world towards Islam as a religion and Muslims as individuals. This wave of mass paranoia, hatred and fear is affecting not only the Muslims but it is bound to engulf the mental health and well-being of all the citizens of the world.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL EVENTS WHICH LED TO CURRENT ‘MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALISM’ (BY IDRISS TERRANTI)

The concept of ‘Revival of Islam’ generally refers to the rising of practices and interests for religion in Islamic countries led by political parties, social and cultural organizations or states. I don’t think that this could be termed as ‘Revival of Islam’. Revival of Islam is linked to the reformist movements in the beginning of twentieth century with the awareness of some leaders and ulama when they became aware of their backwardness regarding the western development and the colonisation of their countries.[1]

Those scholars, leaders and militants aimed to reform Islam which was in stagnation for centuries. They wanted to allow Islamic countries to have access to development and modernity. Among them we can cite Mohamad Abdou, Rachid Reda and the famous Jamal Eddine el Afghani. These ulamas wanted to shake up the lethargy of Islamic governments and people and urge them to develop so that they are able to resist colonialism. They were faced with resistance from both, the colonialists, as well as the Salafists which were dominating at that time. (Salafismis characterized by the respect for the sacred texts in their most literal form without any interpretations. Salafists may or may not be jihadists (Sayyid Qotb).[2]

Islam is not only a religion, but a historic movement which took human civilization to the highest zenith at the time. In the history of Islam, struggles for succession to power began immediately after Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) death, and each party sought to legitimize its position by the sacred texts and their interpretations. This gave birth roughly to two trends: the conservative and dogmatic trend which preach the strict application of the sacred texts; and the trend which favoured ijtihad (rational interpretation of sacred texts).[3] It was the latter trend which gave Islam its glory and enhanced human civilization. The Prophet himself made revolutionary changes in the life of Arabs of the djahilia (times of ignorance). The trend continued with the muûtazila[4] who translated Greek philosophy and heritage and enriched it. They assimilated knowledge from Persia, India and China, and carried and defended the principleof the free will in Islam. Their writings were so free that one can’t even imagine it nowadays. They were the ones who introduced Rationalism in Islam. We can citethe examples of El-djahidh, Ibrahim ennazam, Abd eldjabbar and several other rationalist-philosophers like Al Kindi, Ibn Rushd , Al Farabi….

Other trends in Islam as the concept of free will were evolved by the Sufis like El Ghazali, Jalal Eddine Errumi. They raised spirituality to its summits. They struggled and many of them were persecuted. Their writings were banned by Salafists and dogmatic fundamentalists influenced by Ibn Taymiyya,,[5] which isthe major resource of the present-day fundamentalists.

In the beginning of the twentieth century fundamentalists made an alliance with colonialists to tackle the reformists and nationalists. An example of this is the alliance made by the Wahabis of Saudia Arabia with Great Britain and America later. In Maghreb, colonialists relied on some religious leaders but persecuted reformists and modernists leaders like Ibn Badis of Jamiaat el Muslimin.

This strategic alliance lasted until the present times and was strengthened by the East/West conflict. It was a masterpiece of West in their conflict against the socialist block and against national independence movements. Great Britain and America helped the rising of Islamist parties especially the ‘Muslim Brothers’ in Egypt. In the beginning of the eighteenth century and after two defeats at the hands of Israel, modern Arab and Muslim countries were in a critical and fragile situation. America allied to Saudi Arabia started to substitute the leadership in Arab and Muslim country from nationalists to fundamentalists. Saudia Arabia with its rich oil resources financed the Jihadis in the Afghan conflict and thus became the centre of the Muslim World, thereby spreading Wahabism in the rest of the Muslim World..[6]

What is happening now is not a revival of Islam, but the continuation of decline of Islam because Islamic world is now dominated by conservatives and fundamentalists. Muslim (groups or states) in the world are attacking the freedom of thinking, behaviour and creating doubts in the concepts of Islam in their countries. They display to others their inability to discuss, exchange, or accept different points of view. Last week in Algeria the superior Islamic council claimed to forbid a book about Islam history written by a Muslim researcher! In Yemen a female journalist was sentenced to be whipped because of the way she dressed, and so on… These are just little examples of how narrow-minded Muslim have become in their daily lives. One can write a treatise about such serious events.

This narrow-mindedness (I’d say retardation) is found even in principle Islamic institutions and universities like the El Azhar in Egypt or Qom in Iran. For revival, Islam needs to revitalize the humanitarian and free-thinking approach which will lead to its true radiance..[7] The current situation is actually the result of a long-term war between civilized, humanists and modern Muslims against fundamentalists supported by America.

This is not a struggle between two major civilizations but a struggle for freedom, development, equality and justice, and this struggle should go through Muslims and Western countries and other parts of the world. We need to highlight the fact that the leaders of western countries such as America, Great Britain and France are greatly responsible for the present instability prevailing in the Muslim countries. They were the ones who helped and supported the fundamentalists ( they still support and deal with them) to come into power and become dominant in Islamic countries, and now they point towards the same countries and call them ‘barbarians’ which they can justify by terming it as ‘clash of civilizations’. America and Israel did all they could to break down the nationalist liberation movement of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), which led the struggle of Palestinian people and helped at the same time, through the mediation of Saudi Arabia, the rising of the religious movement Hamas in Gaza with radical and unrealistic goals of the struggle ‘to put out all Jews from all Palestine’. This was a symmetrical reaction to Israeli leadersleader’s vision of a religious state (Jew state) without recognition of Palestinians rights. This changed the complexion of a national liberation war into a religious one. Most Muslims now (at least in Maghreb and Middle East) believe that they fight Israelis not only for what they do (occupy a country and drive out and persecute its population), but for what they are (Jews)! It is in some ways a ‘war of civilizations’.

The dilemma is very complicated because these movements (Hamas and Hezbollah) are fighting to liberate their country and their people from ‘savage’ occupation and no one dare contest this claim and the struggle must be supported. In my opinion this is another success of the western leaders’ strategy to substitute the former enemy (socialism) by a new enemy (Islam) and they are doing all they can to portray the dark side of this enemy.

Great Britain in the 18th/19th centuries sheltered and protected the worst individuals of Islam and gave them access to international media to vocalize horrible insanities in the name of Islam. Muslims were put in a paradoxical situation, in a ‘bateson’ (double bind) like the situation that is found in schizophrenia and we must extricate ourselves from it.

In Chapter 4 of this book, the citation of Sedan is mentioned: “

Most of youth in North Africa were left detached from their traditions…they tried to reconnect and identify themselves with their traditions.

This does not correspond to the reality of the countries in the Maghreb. He speaks about youth as if their identity is naturally fundamentalist. Which traditions is he talking about? The Wahabi traditions or Maghreb traditions? Second, the changes didn’t occur spontaneously or not only in reaction to events; but were a result of simultaneous actions by powers in Islamic countries (which failed in development and helped the rising of Islamic movements to tackle democratic and liberal movements), and the effort of USA to replace Saudi Arabia as a leader in the Islamic world.

CONCLUSION

To conclude, terrorism is not new to humanity; its history dates back to several millennia and includes all kind of groups, states and motivations. Each era, in the past and present has taken its colour from the existing deprivation, inequities and injustice in different scenarios to build its own case for legitimacy. Of course the terrorist groups have borrowed knowledge from their past experiences, and the present technologies like WMDs etc.

Clearly, there cannot be just one method of dealing with these different groups. In the Muslim World, the terrorist attack, wars and insurgencies have varied from region to region. For instance in Palestine the conflict has its own background; while in Afghanistan it has a different history and sequence of events following the ousting of the Russian invasion. Pakistan being in a strategic geopolitical situation is caught up in the crossfire between the world powers and their hegemonic conflicts. It has borne the burden of four million Afghan refugees; the drug mafia; and the ‘Klashinkoff culture’. The Mujahidins were the products of the United States. Unfortunately, these well-trained tribals in Afghanistan and Pakistan were left high-and-dry after the war. Mujahiddins included volunteers from different Muslim countries to fight the jihad (holy war) to liberate their brother country Afghanistan. Most of these foreign Mujahiddins remained in the Federally Administered TribalTribla Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. They integrated through marriages and other means with the local tribal clans. Understandably, their anger and resentment for having being abandoned by the US led to hatred and revenge towards them. Consequently, this resentment spilled over to the Pakistani government, which seemed to be collaborating with the US.

The only way they could establish their domains was to implement their version of the Sharia. Most of these mullahs (clergy) were minimally educated and certainly did not possess any depth of religious knowledge. They are now threatening the writ of the government of Pakistan. The present insurgencies in the Northern Areas of Pakistan are resulting in high toll of destruction and casualties. Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan and Punjab are threatened by the fear of at least three terrorist attacks a week. There is an urgent need for the Pakistan government to address the legitimate needs and grievances of the tribal areas and Balochistan province, and weed out the foreign criminal anti-state elements manufacturing suicidal human bombers. These anti-state terrorists in Pakistan are fully equipped and well-trained and well-known to be supported by the neighboring enemy country. International support both technical and financial is due to Pakistan from USA and other friendly countries to annihilate the recurring menace of terrorism in the region.

All terrorists cannot be dealt in the same manner. Each group has to be taken into consideration keeping in mind their historical background; present circumstances; the deprivations and degradation suffered by them. Particularly, this is relevant to the terrorist groups who are also called the freedom fighters with a legitimate cause, for example, the Palestinian and Kashmiri groups. Solutions must be evolved by the United Nations and forums like the international Court of Justice at Hague.

The fact of the matter is that Muslims believe and respect both Judaism and Christianity and Islam is the last of the Theistic religion which is liberal, modern and practical way of life. All human rights and civilized world’s doctrines are the basis of the teachings of Islam.

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